15 Essential C++ Features Every Developer Should Learn in 2023 – IQCode

Why C++ is a Versatile and Powerful Programming Language

C++ was invented by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 as an extension to the C programming language. It includes a range of features from various programming models such as object-oriented, imperative, and generic programming. Here are the top features of C++:

  1. Simple
  2. Object-Oriented
  3. Machine Independent and Platform-Dependent
  4. Popular
  5. Case-Sensitive
  6. Mid-level programming language
  7. Structured Programming Language
  8. Rich Library
  9. Memory Management
  10. Powerful and Fast
  11. Pointer
  12. Recursion
  13. Integration and Extensibility
  14. Compiler-based
  15. Multi-threading

C++ offers excellent performance, extensive reuse, and abstraction mechanisms, making it a popular choice in the programming industry. It has a wide range of applications, from software engineering to game development. Additionally, C++ is highly portable, allowing developers to create software that can run on different operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Mac.

Conclusion

Overall, C++ is a versatile programming language that offers a range of features and benefits to programmers. Its ability to handle both low-level and high-level programming tasks makes it a popular choice among developers worldwide.

FAQs

  • Q.1: What feature makes C++ powerful?
  • A: C++ is powerful because of its ability to handle low-level programming tasks and high-level programming tasks.
  • Q.2: Why is C++ so popular?
  • A: C++ is popular because of its performance, versatility, and the extensive reuse and abstraction mechanisms it offers.
  • Q.3: Which is better C++ or Java?
  • A: Both C++ and Java have their advantages and disadvantages. The choice depends on the requirements of the project. C++ is more appropriate for systems programming, and Java is more suited for web applications.

Additional Resources

Some additional resources for learning C++ include:

  • https://www.learncpp.com/
  • https://en.cppreference.com/w/
  • https://www.cplusplus.com/doc/tutorial/

Why C++?

C++ is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language, similar to Java, which provides programmers with the necessary tools to build programs that follow OOP concepts.

  • C++ is reliable, versatile, and performs outstandingly, making it highly sought-after in the industry.
  • The compiling and execution of C++ are faster than most general-purpose programming languages, making it perfect for low-latency applications.
  • Being a good C++ programmer can offer a competitive salary and job security.
  • It is the most commonly used programming language for system and application programming.
  • C++ offers memory control and has a wide range of libraries capable of complex graphics creation.

// Example code

// This code prints “Hello World” to the console

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
cout << "Hello World" << endl;
return 0;
}

C++ Top Features

Here are some of the top features of C++:


- Object-oriented programming (OOP)
- Strongly-typed language
- Rich library support
- Efficient memory management with pointers
- Operator overloading for flexible syntax
- Exception handling to improve program reliability
- Templates for generic programming
- Inheritance and polymorphism for code reusability

C++: A Simple Programming Language

Compared to other programming languages, C++ offers a structured and modular approach ideal for creating readable code and reusable components. If you already know C, transitioning to C++ is easy, and you’ll have access to a range of library functions and data types to solve problems. C++ uses a bottom-up approach suitable for tackling big projects through division into smaller tasks.

Object-Oriented Programming in C++

C++ is a powerful Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) language that enables developers to code with ease and maintain the system without much hassle.

C++ incorporates the following OOP concepts:

Polymorphism: It allows data to be presented in various forms, making programming more versatile.
Inheritance: It allows a class to inherit the attributes or features of another class, lowering redundancy.
Data Encapsulation: It packs associated functions, methods, and data into a single unit for ease of management.
Data Abstraction: It displays critical information to users without revealing background details or trivial details.
Data Hiding: It protects private data from unauthorized access. 

Overall, these OOP features enhance the efficiency of software development and maintenance.

Machine Independence and Platform Dependence in C++

C++ is machine independent, meaning programs can run on multiple machines with minimal modifications. However, it is not platform independent, limiting programs to a specific platform for execution. The compiler generates an .exe file that is OS-dependent and cannot run on various operating systems. Although code can run on Linux, Windows, and Mac OSX, the C++ program’s executable file is limited to the operating system or platform on which it was developed and compiled.

C++: A Versatile Programming Language

C++ is a powerful programming language that can form a solid foundation for many other programming languages due to its support for object-oriented programming. Its fast speed and precise memory management make it very popular for game development and complex business applications. This language is used in various fields ranging from Adobe products, Unreal Engine, to popular browsers like Chrome and Firefox.

Case Sensitivity in C++

C++ is a case-sensitive programming language, meaning that it distinguishes between uppercase and lowercase letters. For instance, the command used to display output, “cout,” cannot be written as “Cout” or “COUT” without altering its meaning. Other programming languages like HTML and MySQL are not case-sensitive.

MID-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

C++ is an intermediate programming language that combines the features of both low-level (machine-level) and high-level (user-oriented that is easily comprehensible and close to human language) languages. It is utilized for developing diverse applications ranging from low-level system applications such as kernels and drivers, to high-level applications like GUIs and desktop applications.


// No code changes required

Structured Programming with C++

C++ is a structured programming language. It allows developers to break down complex code into smaller, more manageable pieces, which can be combined using various tools such as functions, classes, and objects. This modular approach allows for cleaner code and easier maintenance.

RICH LIBRARY

C++ offers various built-in libraries, enabling developers to save time and expedite the development process. Here are some of the header files:

: It includes standard input/output functions.
: It consists of math library functions.
: It covers the functions for memory allocation, random number generation, numeric-string conversion, and many other operations.
: It has functions for managing files, such as writing, reading, and creating files.
– Standard Container Libraries: They include classes for accessing, managing, and manipulating data in the containers of C++ standard library.

Memory Management in C++

C++ allows dynamic memory allocation, which means we can allocate memory for variables, objects, or arrays at runtime. Memory is divided into two types: stack and heap storage. Stacks contain memory allocated for variables inside functions, while heap contains unused memory that can be dynamically allocated. If you’re unsure about the size of the storage required for a defined variable, you can determine it during runtime. The new and delete operators are used to allocate and deallocate memory, respectively.
// Example code for allocating and deallocating memory using new and delete operators
int* ptr = new int;
*ptr = 5;
delete ptr;

C++: A Powerful and Fast Programming Language

C++ is a high-performance programming language with fast execution and compiling times, making it faster than most other languages. Its support for various data types, functions, and operators makes it useful for creating operating systems, browsers, and games. Additionally, C++ is versatile and supports a variety of programming techniques, such as procedural, object-oriented, and functional styles. Its advanced features make it an incredibly powerful and flexible language.

Understanding Pointers in C++

In C++, a pointer is a variable that stores the memory address of another variable. Pointers can be used for memory access, structures, functions, arrays, and more. Here’s an example declaration:

int* ptrVar;

In this example, “ptrVar” is a pointer that will store the memory address of an integer variable. By using pointers, we can solve problems that require direct memory access.

For instance, if we have a variable “var” holding the value 5 and its address in memory is 0x61ff08, we can declare a pointer that points to the address of “var” as follows:

int* ptrVar = &var;

Now, “ptrVar” holds the memory address of “var” and we can access the value of “var” by using the pointer.

Recursion

Recursion is a technique where a function calls itself, making it a recursive function. By using recursion, a function can be repeated multiple times during its execution. This helps to conserve memory by not having to repeatedly write the same code. It also reduces the length of the code and makes it cleaner.

Integration and Extensibility

The use of object-oriented programming in C++ ensures maintainability and extensibility of programs, allowing for the creation of large-scale applications. C++ easily integrates new features, making it a popular choice for diverse applications such as mobile app and game development, software development (e.g., Adobe Premiere, ImageReady), and web browser development (e.g., Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome), as well as for bank applications like Infosys Finacle.

Compiler-Based Programming in C++

C++ is a compiler-based programming language, meaning that code needs to be compiled before it can be run. This involves translating the code into machine language that the system can understand. This results in highly efficient and fast programs compared to interpreter-based languages like Python and Java.

Multithreading in C++

Multithreading is a technique used in programming to run multiple threads of a program at the same time. In C++, external libraries are used to implement multithreaded applications. The program is divided into multiple threads, each representing a separate path of execution. This allows for efficient use of system resources and faster execution.

Why C++ is a Dominant Programming Language

C++ is a powerful and efficient programming language that supports object-oriented paradigms. With imperative, object-oriented and generic features, it is an ideal choice for competitive programming. C++ code is widely used in operating systems, web browsers, databases, and other contemporary systems due to its remarkable features. Its excellent speed makes it a good option for performance-critical applications. These powerful features have made C++ a priority for novice programmers who want to reduce project development time and cost.


//optimized and commented code not required for this task

What makes C++ a powerful language?

C++ is a versatile language that supports various programming techniques, including object-oriented, procedural, and functional programming. The four fundamental principles of C++ that add to its robustness and flexibility are Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance, and Polymorphism.

Why is C++ Popular?

C++ is popular due to its flexibility, which allows it to adapt quickly to the changing needs of software developers and programmers. As it supports object-oriented programming, it serves as an excellent foundation for many other modern programming languages available today.

Comparison between C++ and Java

Although Java is easier to learn, C++ produces faster and more efficient code, making it more suitable for high-impact applications. However, it is not necessary to choose between C++ and Java as learning one language does not limit your opportunities in the programming world. Ultimately, the choice should be based on the specific task at hand.

Additional Resources

Here are some additional resources to improve your C++ skills:

Use these resources to become a skilled C++ programmer!

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