2023 Top Unix Interview Questions and Answers - IQCode

Basic Unix Interview Questions: Explain Unix Architecture

Unix started as an experiment at AT&T Bell Labs in the mid-1960s and became a fully-fledged operating system designed for efficient multi-tasking and multi-user functions. The operating system is hardware-independent and features a shell that gives users processing control. The Unix operating system is very customizable, evolved into a highly complex, versatile, and scalable operating system capable of handling almost every modern-day user task.

Regarding the Unix architecture, it follows a layered approach, consisting of a kernel, shell, utilities, and application programs.

At the core, the Unix kernel is responsible for managing and interacting with hardware devices, managing system resources like file systems, memory, and processing power allocation.

On top of the kernel is the shell, which acts as the command-line interface between the user and the operating system. The shell interprets and executes user commands and scripts.

Utilities such as editors, compilers, and debugging tools that provide additional functionality come atop the shell.

Lastly, the application programs are built on top of utilities, which span from simple file applications to complex data processing applications like databases and web servers.

Overall, the architecture of Unix is highly modular and follows a well-defined structure that makes it faster, efficient, and highly customizable.

Defining a Single-User System

A single-user system is a type of computer operating system that is designed to be used by only one individual at a given time. It is typically installed on personal computers and is intended for use in a home or small office setting.

The single-user system provides a simple interface that allows users to perform basic tasks such as word processing, web browsing, and email. It is not intended for use in a multi-user environment where multiple individuals need to access the same system simultaneously.

In general, single-user systems have less overhead compared to multi-user systems, which makes them faster and more efficient for individual users. Examples of single-user systems include Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux distributions such as Ubuntu and Fedora.

Significant Features of UNIX

UNIX has several significant features, including:

- Multiuser and multitasking capabilities<br>
- Portability across different hardware platforms<br>
- Hierarchical file system<br>
- Unix shell scripting language<br>
- Networking support<br>
- Command line interface<br>
- Text-based interface<br>
- Built-in security features<br>
- High-level programming language support<br>
- Extensibility and modularity<br>

Yes, the command to erase all files in the current directory including its sub-directories depends on the operating system. Here are some examples:

For Windows: del /s /q *.*

For Unix-based systems (Mac OS, Linux): rm -rf *

Note: Please be careful when using these commands as they will permanently delete all files within the directory and its sub-directories. Always double-check before executing the command.

Describing a Link in Unix

In Unix, a link is a reference to a file or directory in the file system. There are two types of links: hard links and symbolic links.

A hard link is a direct link to the file's inode, which is simply a data structure that contains information about the file, such as its permissions, ownership, and location on the disk. Hard links cannot be created for directories, and if the original file is deleted, the hard link will still exist and reference the same data.

A symbolic link, on the other hand, is a special type of file that contains a path to another file or directory. Symbolic links can be created for directories, and if the original file or directory is moved or renamed, the symbolic link will still reference the correct location.

To create a hard link in Unix, you can use the `ln` command with the `-P` option:

ln -P /path/to/original/file /path/to/hard/link

To create a symbolic link, you can use the `ln` command with the `-s` option:

ln -s /path/to/original/file /path/to/symbolic/link

To view information about a link in Unix, you can use the `ls` command with the `-l` option:

ls -l /path/to/link

This will display detailed information about the link, including its type (hard or symbolic), ownership, permissions, and target.

Description of Pipes in UNIX

In UNIX, pipes are a method of connecting two commands to pass output from one command as input to the other command. Pipes use the vertical bar "|" symbol to combine two or more commands into a single command.

Here is an example of using a pipe in UNIX:

$ ls | grep example

In this example, the "ls" command lists the files in the current directory, and the "grep" command searches for the word "example" in the output of the "ls" command.

Pipes are a powerful feature in UNIX that enable users to perform complex tasks by chaining together simple commands. However, it is important to remember that pipes can also slow down system performance, so it is essential to use them judiciously and optimize their usage wherever possible.

How to separate grep and egrep in shell scripting?

In shell scripting, grep and egrep are two different commands used for pattern matching. To separate them, you need to use them with different options.

Here's an example:

grep "pattern" file.txt

This command will search for the "pattern" in the "file.txt" file using basic regular expressions.

egrep "pattern1|pattern2" file.txt

This command will search for either "pattern1" or "pattern2" in the "file.txt" file using extended regular expressions.

By using different options with these commands, you can separate grep and egrep in shell scripting.

Understanding the fork() system call

The `fork()` system call is a function that creates a new process by duplicating the calling process. The new process, known as the child process, is an exact copy of the parent process, which called `fork()`. Both the parent and child processes then continue their execution from the point where the `fork()` function was called.

The child process’s memory space is a copy of the parent’s memory space at the time of `fork()` execution, and the child can modify its own copy of the memory without affecting the parent's. `fork()` returns 0 in the child process and returns the process ID of the child process to the parent process.

Using `fork()` allows for multitasking and parallel processing, as the parent and child processes can execute different tasks simultaneously and independently.

Understanding the meaning of the term "super user"

A super user is a user account on a computer system or network that has administrator privileges and can perform any task without any restrictions or limitations. This type of user has access to all files, folders, and settings on the system and can modify or delete them as they see fit. Super user accounts are typically used by system administrators or managers who require complete control over a system to manage and maintain it effectively. The super user is also sometimes referred to as a root user or administrator.

What are the functionalities of CHMOD, CHOWN, and CHGRP commands?

The CHMOD, CHOWN, and CHGRP commands are used in Unix-based operating systems to modify permissions, ownership, and group settings for files and directories. Here's a brief overview of each command:


CHMOD changes the permissions of a file or directory. This command allows you to dictate who can read, write, or execute a file or directory. For example, you can use CHMOD to make a file executable by everyone.


CHOWN changes the ownership of a file or directory. You can use this command to change the user and group that owns a particular file or directory. This is often useful when you need to transfer ownership of a file or directory to another user.


CHGRP changes the group ownership of a file or directory. This command allows you to change the group that has access to a particular file or directory.

Important Standard Streams in Unix Shell Scripting

Can you name the important standard streams in the Unix shell scripting?


are the three important standard streams in Unix shell scripting. STDIN is used for input, STDOUT for standard output, and STDERR is used for error messages. Redirecting these streams is a common practice in shell scripting to manipulate input and output.

Explanation of 'nohup' command in Unix

The 'nohup' command in Unix is used to run a command immune to hangups. This means that the command will continue to run even when the terminal or shell session is closed or disconnected. The command also redirects any output to a file specified by the user, preventing it from being lost due to the hangup. To use the 'nohup' command, simply precede the command you want to run with 'nohup' followed by the command itself and any arguments. For example, to run a script called 'myScript.sh' with 'nohup', the command would be:

nohup ./myScript.sh &

This will run the script in the background and redirect any output to a file called 'nohup.out'. The ampersand at the end of the command is used to detach the process from the current shell session and allow it to continue running in the background.

Intermediate Unix Interview Questions

13. Explain the differences between swapping and paging.

Swapping and paging are two techniques used by operating systems to manage memory.

Swapping refers to moving an entire process from main memory to a disk. This is done when the system does not have enough free memory to keep all the processes running. Swapping requires a lot of I/O operations, which can slow down the system.

Paging, on the other hand, is a memory management technique that transfers small chunks of data between main memory and disk. Pages are fixed-size blocks of memory, usually 4 KB in size. The operating system divides the process's memory into pages and only the pages that are needed are loaded into main memory. Paging is less disruptive than swapping and is the preferred method of memory management for most modern operating systems.

Overall, paging is a more efficient way of managing memory than swapping, as it reduces the amount of disk I/O and allows for more efficient use of available memory.

What is a Daemon?

A daemon is a background process in a Unix-based operating system that performs various tasks without any user interaction. It runs in the background even after the user logs out and is often started during system boot. Daemons perform a wide range of functions like managing network connections, scheduling tasks, and providing system services. They are an essential part of the operating system and play a critical role in ensuring its smooth functioning.

Method for Changing File Access Permission

To change file access permissions in a Unix-based system, you can use the "chmod" command followed by a numeric code or symbolic code. The numeric code consists of three digits, where the first digit represents the owner's permissions, the second digit represents the group's permissions, and the third digit represents everyone else's permissions. Each digit is a sum of these values: 4 for read permission, 2 for write permission, and 1 for execute permission. Therefore, a permission code of 755 would give the owner read, write, and execute permissions, while giving groups and everyone else only read and execute permissions.

The symbolic code is more flexible and uses letters to represent the permissions. For example, "u" represents the owner, "g" represents the group, and "o" represents everyone else. The letters "r", "w", and "x" represent read, write, and execute permissions, respectively. The symbolic code can also use "+" or "-" to add or remove permissions. For example, "chmod u+x file.txt" would add execute permission for the file owner.

Process Model of UNIX

The process model of UNIX is based on the concept of a parent process creating child processes. Each process has a unique process ID (PID) and is associated with various system resources such as CPU time, memory, and file descriptors.

When a parent process creates a child process, the child process inherits the same system resources as the parent. The child process can also create its own child processes, creating a hierarchical tree-like structure of processes.

The process model of UNIX is designed for multiprocessing, which means that multiple processes can run at the same time on a single machine. This allows for efficient use of system resources and enables UNIX to support multiple users and their applications simultaneously.

Overall, the process model of UNIX is a key component of the operating system's design and enables it to provide powerful and flexible functionality to users.

Explaining the Term "Filter"

A filter is a function or tool that can be used to sort, organize, or modify data. In the context of programming, filters are often used to process data received from APIs and databases. They can be used to retrieve specific pieces of data or to convert data into a different format. Filters can also be used to search for patterns or specific values within a data set. Overall, filters are a valuable tool for managing and manipulating data in a variety of programming contexts.

Shell Variables

In shell scripting, variables are used to store data values. Shell variables can be classified into two types:

- System defined variables: These are predefined variables that are set by the system and can be used by the user. Examples of system defined variables include $HOME, which represents the home directory of the current user, and $PATH, which stores the list of directories that the system uses to search for executable files.

- User defined variables: These are variables that are defined by the user in the shell script and are used to store data values for later use in the script. User-defined variable names should consist of letters, underscores, or digits, but the first character must be a letter. The value of a variable can be set or changed using the assignment operator (=). For example, to set the value of a variable named "count" to 10, we would use the command "count=10".

What is MBR?

MBR stands for Master Boot Record. It is a special type of boot sector located at the beginning of a storage device like a hard disk, floppy disk, or USB drive. MBR contains important information about the disk's partitions and the boot loader used to start the operating system. It is responsible for loading the operating system kernel and initializing the hardware components of the computer.

MBR is a critical component of the disk and any damage to it can result in data loss or boot failure. It is important to keep a backup of MBR so that it can be restored in case of any issues.

File System in UNIX

The file system in UNIX is structured as a hierarchy of directories, which can contain files or other directories. The top-most directory in the hierarchy is called the root directory, denoted by '/'. All other directories and files are contained within this hierarchy, arranged in a tree-like structure.

Each file or directory has a unique name within its parent directory, and the full path to a file or directory is specified by listing all of the directories that must be traversed to reach it, separated by forward slashes ('/').

In UNIX, all files and directories are organized under a single root directory. This means that the file system does not have multiple drives or file systems like in other operating systems.

Furthermore, UNIX filesystems are case-sensitive, meaning that 'file.txt' and 'File.txt' are two distinct files.

Permissions are an important aspect of the UNIX file system. Every file and directory has an associated set of permissions, determining which users are allowed to perform specific actions on the file or directory, such as reading, writing, executing, or deleting. The permissions are controlled by the user who owns the file or directory, as well as a set of rules that determine whether other users or groups are allowed to access or modify the file or directory.

Significance of Shebang line in Shell Scripting

In shell scripting, the shebang line (also known as the hashbang or sha-bang line) at the beginning of a script tells the shell which interpreter to use to execute the file. It is represented by #! followed by the path to the desired interpreter.

For example, if we want to use the bash shell to execute the script, we can include the following shebang line at the top:


This line tells the system to execute the script using the bash shell located at `/bin/bash`.

Without the shebang line, the system will not know which interpreter to use and the script will not be executed correctly. It is important to include the shebang line at the beginning of every shell script.

Commonly Used Network Commands

Here are some of the commonly used network commands:

1. ping

2. ipconfig /ifconfig

3. tracert / traceroute

4. nslookup

5. netstat

6. route

7. arp

These commands are used to troubleshoot network problems and perform network diagnosis.

Explaining Pathnames in Unix and its Different Types

In Unix, a pathname is used to describe the path to a file or directory. It is a sequence of characters that specifies the location of a file or directory in the Unix file system.

There are two types of pathnames in Unix: 1. Absolute Pathname: It starts with the root node of the file system and describes the complete path to the file or directory. It always begins with a forward slash (/). For example, /usr/local/bin.

2. Relative Pathname: It starts from the current working directory and describes the path to the file or directory relative to the current directory. It does not start with a forward slash (/). For example, to refer the parent directory, we use “..” and to refer to the current directory we use “.”. For instance, if the current working directory is /home/user/, and the file is located in /home/user/documents/report.txt, we can refer to it as documents/report.txt.

Unix pathnames are case sensitive and can have up to 255 characters in length. The correct usage of pathnames is essential for navigating the Unix file system and executing commands properly on files and directories.

Superblock in Unix

In Unix-based operating systems, a superblock is a data structure that contains important information about a file system, such as its size, status, and location of its inodes. The superblock is typically located at a fixed position on the storage device and is read by the operating system during the boot process to mount the file system.

The superblock is updated periodically by the operating system to reflect changes made to the file system, such as the allocation of new blocks or the deletion of existing files. It also contains information related to the file system's integrity, such as a checksum that is used to detect corruption.

Superblocks are an essential component of Unix file systems and are critical for the operating system to maintain and manage file systems efficiently.

Some Useful Unix Commands for File Manipulation

Here are some commonly used Unix commands for file manipulation:


- list files and directories in the current directory


- change directory


- create a directory


- create a new file or update the modified time of an existing file


- copy a file from one location to another


- move a file from one location to another or rename a file


- remove/delete a file


- remove/delete a directory


- change permissions of a file or directory


- change ownership of a file or directory

These commands can be combined with various flags and options for more specific tasks. It is recommended to consult the manual pages for each command for a thorough understanding of their usage and options.

Explanation of Networking Stack and Protocol

A networking stack refers to the set of protocols and technologies used for communication between devices in a network. It includes both hardware and software components, such as network adapters, routers, switches, and protocols like TCP/IP, HTTP, FTP, and DNS.

Each layer of the networking stack has its own set of protocols and functions. The layers work together to provide a framework for communication between devices. For example, the application layer may use HTTP to request data from a server, which is sent using TCP/IP protocols at the transport layer.

Protocols are a set of rules that govern communication between devices. They specify details like the format of data packets, the order in which they are transmitted, and how errors are handled. Different protocols are used for different tasks, such as sending emails or streaming video.

The choice of protocols and technologies used in a networking stack can have a significant impact on the performance, security, and reliability of a network. It's important to choose the right combination of protocols and hardware components to ensure that network communication is efficient, secure, and reliable.

Explanation of Alias Mechanism

The Alias Mechanism is a way to create alternate names for database tables or columns. This is often used to provide more meaningful or intuitive names for users, or to make the SQL syntax easier to read and understand.

For example, instead of writing a complicated SQL query like:

SELECT users.firstname, users.lastname, addresses.street, addresses.city
FROM users
JOIN addresses ON users.address_id = addresses.id
WHERE users.state = 'CA'

You could create aliases for each table, like this:

SELECT u.firstname, u.lastname, a.street, a.city
FROM users AS u
JOIN addresses AS a ON u.address_id = a.id
WHERE u.state = 'CA'

This makes the syntax much easier to read and understand.

Aliases can also be used for columns, like this:

SELECT u.firstname AS first, u.lastname AS last, a.street, a.city
FROM users AS u
JOIN addresses AS a ON u.address_id = a.id
WHERE u.state = 'CA'

In this case, the result set will have columns named 'first', 'last', 'street', and 'city', instead of 'firstname', 'lastname', 'street', and 'city'.

The Alias Mechanism is especially helpful when dealing with large, complex databases with many tables and columns. By using aliases, you can simplify the syntax of your SQL queries and make them easier to read and manage.

Understanding Wildcards in Computing

A wildcard is a character or a set of characters that are used to replace other characters or words in a search query or a command. In computing, wildcards are often used in file searches and in command-line interfaces.

The most commonly used wildcard characters are the asterisk (*) and the question mark (?). The asterisk represents any number of characters, while the question mark represents a single character.

For example, if you wanted to search for all files with the extension .txt in a directory, you would use the wildcard *.txt. This would return all files in the directory with the .txt extension. Similarly, if you wanted to search for all files that start with the letters "abc" and end with the extension .doc, you would use the wildcard abc*.doc.

Wildcards can also be used in command-line interfaces to execute a command on multiple files at once. For example, the command "rm *.txt" would delete all files with the .txt extension in the current directory.

Overall, wildcards are a powerful tool that can save time and simplify tasks in computing.

Understanding System Calls and Library Functions in UNIX Commands

In UNIX, system calls are functions provided by the kernel (the core of the operating system) that can be called by user programs to perform low-level operations such as file I/O, process management, and network communication. System calls are accessed through special library functions in C programs that wrap the underlying kernel code and provide a simpler, more standardized interface for programmers.

Library functions, on the other hand, are pre-written code modules that perform common tasks such as string manipulation, memory management, and input/output formatting. Library functions are typically provided in libraries that are linked to a program at compile-time or run-time, allowing the program to use the functions without having to re-implement them from scratch.

Both system calls and library functions are essential components of the UNIX programming environment, providing a powerful and flexible foundation for building a wide range of software applications.

Advanced Unix Interview Questions - Explain Virtual Memory

Virtual memory refers to the technique used by an operating system to allow a computer to compensate for shortages of physical memory by temporarily transferring pages of data from random access memory (RAM) to disk storage. It is a way for a computer to expand the amount of available memory it has access to, which in turn allows it to run larger applications or multiple applications simultaneously. Virtual memory is an essential component of modern operating systems and is used extensively in Unix systems, among others.

// Example code of allocating virtual memory in C

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main() {

  // Allocate memory for 100 integers
  int* ptr = malloc(sizeof(int) * 100);

  // Use the newly allocated memory
  for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
    ptr[i] = i;

  // Free the memory when finished with it

  return 0;

Explanation of the kill() System Call and its Return Values

The kill() system call is used in Unix-based operating systems to terminate a process or send a signal to a process. The function takes two arguments: the process ID and the signal number.

The process ID is the numerical value associated with a running process. The signal number is an integer that specifies the type of signal to send to the process. There are various types of signals, which can be used for different purposes such as terminating a process, restarting a process, etc.

The return value of the kill() function depends on the success or failure of the system call. A return value of 0 indicates that the signal was successfully sent to the process. A return value of -1 indicates that the signal could not be sent due to an error, such as an invalid process ID or an invalid signal number.

It is important to note that the kill() system call can be used to send signals to other processes, but it can also be used to send signals to the current process. In this case, the process ID used for the function would be the process ID of the current process.

Commands for Retrieving User Information in Unix

In Unix, there are several commands that can be used to retrieve user information. Here are some of them: - whoami: displays the username of the current user - id: displays the UID (user ID) and GID (group ID) of the current user - finger [username]: displays detailed information about a user, including their login name, real name, and the last time they logged in - w: displays information about the users currently logged in, including their username, terminal, login time, and CPU usage - last: displays the list of users who have recently logged in, along with the time and date of their last login and logout - passwd [username]: allows a user to change their password or the password of another user if they have sufficient privileges - chfn [username]: allows a user to change their full name or other information stored in the /etc/passwd file

These commands can be useful for system administrators who need to manage user accounts and troubleshoot issues related to user permissions and access.

Explanation of Mount and Unmount Commands

The mount and unmount commands are used in Linux operating systems to connect or disconnect a file system.

The mount command is used to make a file system available for use and to attach it to a directory in the system's file structure. For example, to mount a USB drive on the system, the command would be:

sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb

Here, the "sudo" command is used to gain root or administrative privileges, "mount" is the command itself, "/dev/sdb1" is the device name of the USB drive, and "/mnt/usb" is the directory where the file system should be attached.

Conversely, the unmount command is used to detach a previously mounted file system from its directory so it can be safely removed from the system. The command would be:

sudo umount /mnt/usb

Here, "umount" is the command, and "/mnt/usb" is the directory that should be detached.

It's important to use these commands carefully to avoid data loss or corruption. Always make sure that all applications using a file system are closed before unmounting it and never remove a USB drive or other external device without properly unmounting it first.

Explanation of Command Substitution

Command substitution is a feature in Linux/Unix shells that allows a command to be executed and its output to be used as a command itself. This output can be assigned to a variable or used as an argument in another command.

To use command substitution, enclose the command inside the backtick (`) character or the $() syntax. For example,

my_variable=`ls -1`
echo $my_variable

This will execute the "ls -1" command and assign the output to "my_variable". The "echo" command will then print the contents of "my_variable".

Alternatively, the same example using the $() syntax would look like:

my_variable=$(ls -1)
echo $my_variable

Both examples achieve the same result. However, the $() syntax is preferred by some as it is easier to read and can be nested more easily.

Overall, command substitution is a powerful feature in Linux/Unix shells that allows for efficient and flexible command execution.

Difference between ps -ef and ps -auxwww

The main difference between the

ps -ef


ps -auxwww

commands is that

ps -ef

only displays a subset of all available processes, while

ps -auxwww

displays all available processes with their detailed information.


ps -ef

command displays a list of all processes on the system, including those owned by other users. It provides a basic overview of each process, including the process ID (PID), parent process ID (PPID), CPU usage, and memory usage.

On the other hand, the

ps -auxwww

command provides more detailed information about each process. It shows the user who started the process, the command that was used to start the process, and the exact arguments that were provided. Additionally, it displays information about the status of the process, the amount of virtual memory it is using, and the time it has been running.

Therefore, if you need more detailed information about all processes on the system, you should use the

ps -auxwww

command. However, if you are only interested in a basic overview of the system processes, you can use the

ps -ef


Understanding Zombie Processes in UNIX and how to identify them

In UNIX Operating System, a Zombie process is a process that has completed its execution but still has an entry in the process table. Zombie processes usually occur when a child process is terminated, but its parent process hasn't yet called the wait() function to retrieve its exit status, leaving the process in a "zombie" state.

To identify Zombie process, run the command 'top' in the terminal window and look for processes with a 'Z' in the "STAT" column. You can also use the 'ps' command with the 'a' and 'x' options added together with the 'o' option to specify additional output fields. The resulting output will include a "Z" in the "STAT" column to indicate the zombie state.

It is important to identify and clear zombie processes as they take up system resources such as memory and can cause slow performance. This can be achieved by stopping the parent process that created the zombie process using the 'kill' command or by rebooting the system in the worst-case scenario.

Finding hostname and IP address in a network

To find the hostname from an IP address in a network, you can use the command prompt on a Windows computer. Open the command prompt and type "ping -a [IP address]" where [IP address] is the address you want to find the hostname for. For example:

ping -a

This will return the hostname of the device with IP address

To find the IP address from a hostname in a network, you can also use the command prompt. Type "nslookup [hostname]" where [hostname] is the name of the device you want to find the IP address for. For example:

nslookup google.com

This will return the IP address of the device with hostname "google.com".

Explanation of System Bootup in UNIX

When a UNIX system is turned on or rebooted, the boot process begins. Here's a step-by-step explanation of the system bootup in UNIX:

1. Power on the system. 2. The system firmware, such as BIOS or UEFI, performs a Power-On Self-Test (POST) to check the hardware components. 3. The firmware searches for a bootable device, such as a hard drive, and loads the boot loader from the MBR (Master Boot Record) or GPT (GUID Partition Table). 4. The boot loader, such as GRUB or LILO, loads the kernel into memory. 5. The kernel initializes devices, loads kernel modules, and mounts the root file system. 6. The init process is started, which reads the /etc/inittab file to determine the default run level and spawns the appropriate terminal and login processes. 7. The system enters the default run level, which determines which services are started.

Once the system has fully booted up, it is ready for use by the user.

Different Types of Jobs

There are various classes or categories of jobs, including but not limited to:

1. Professional jobs - these require advanced education and expertise in a particular field, such as doctors, lawyers, and engineers.

2. Service jobs - these involve providing services to others, such as waiters/waitresses, retail workers, and customer service representatives.

3. Skilled trades jobs - these involve special skills and training, such as electricians, plumbers, and carpenters.

4. Administrative jobs - these involve tasks such as organizing, planning, and managing, such as human resources specialists, office managers, and executive assistants.

5. Technical jobs - these require specialized knowledge and expertise, such as software developers, IT support, and network administrators.

6. Creative jobs - these involve skills in art, design, and other creative fields such as graphic designers, writers, and musicians.

Each class of job requires different skills and qualifications, and they offer varying levels of pay and benefits.

What are the different IDs used in Unix processes?

In Unix processes, there are three main IDs - UID (User ID), EUID (Effective User ID) and PID (Process ID).

UID is the ID of the user who owns the process, while EUID is the ID of the user who is executing the process.

PID is a unique numerical identifier assigned to a running process by the system which helps to identify and manage the process.


This section marks the end of the report.

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