Top Software Testing Interview Questions for 2023 - IQCode

Software Testing in Software Development

Software testing is a critical activity within the software development lifecycle. Its purpose is to verify that the software performs as expected and meets the requirements. Testing is essential in any software development project as it provides confidence that the software produces accurate results for a given input.

The main question that software testing aims to answer is: how can we ensure that the software performs as it is intended to and does not perform unintended actions? It is important to note that testing alone does not guarantee quality software, nor does a high amount of testing inherently make the software high quality. Rather, testing is an indicator of software quality and provides feedback to the software developers so that they can take necessary actions to fix the issues found.

This article provides frequently asked interview questions that an interviewer may ask a software tester or quality assurance (QA) applicant. The questions are divided into three sections, based on the skill set of the applicant:

  • Software Testing Interview Questions
  • Manual Testing Interview Questions for Freshers
  • Manual Testing Interview Questions For Experienced

At the end of the article, there are multiple-choice questions to evaluate the reader's understanding of software testing.


1. Explain the Role of Testing in Software Development

How Much Testing is Enough? Is Exhaustive Testing Possible for Software?

There is no definite answer to the question of how much testing is enough. It primarily depends on factors such as the complexity of the software, the level of quality required, budget, and time constraints. However, it is not possible to achieve exhaustive testing of software as there are millions of paths to be tested in complex applications, and it can be practically impossible to test them all. Testing can only identify defects but not prove that the software is 100% error-free. Therefore, testing should be comprehensive enough to identify the significant defects that affect the application's core functionality and user experience.

What are the different types of testing?

Testing is an essential part of software development that helps ensure the quality of the final product. Here are some common types of testing:

1. Unit Testing: Testing individual components or units of code to ensure they function correctly.

2. Integration Testing: Testing how different components work together in a system.

3. System Testing: Testing the entire system to ensure that it meets all requirements.

4. Acceptance Testing: Testing the system to ensure it meets the customer's needs and requirements.

5. Performance Testing: Testing the system's ability to handle large amounts of data and users.

6. Security Testing: Testing the system's ability to protect against unauthorized access or attacks.

7. Regression Testing: Re-testing previously tested functionality to ensure it still works after changes have been made to the system.

8. A/B Testing: Testing two different versions of a product to see which version performs better with users.

It's important to choose the appropriate testing type based on the needs of the project and to conduct thorough testing to ensure a high-quality final product.

Why Developers Shouldn't Test Their Own Code?

Developers should consider involving other team members in software testing instead of testing their own code. This is because there are inherent biases that can affect their objectivity when testing their own code. For instance, they may overlook certain errors or assume that certain aspects of the code are working perfectly when they are not.

Testing by another team member can also bring a fresh perspective to the testing process and uncover issues that the developer may not have anticipated. In addition, collaboration during testing can lead to better communication and understanding of the code among team members.

Understanding the Software Testing Life Cycle

Software testing life cycle refers to a step-by-step process followed during the testing of software applications. It involves planning, designing, executing, and reporting the software testing activities. The major phases of the software testing life cycle include requirement analysis, test planning, test case development, test execution, and reporting. By following a well-defined software testing life cycle, organizations can ensure the quality of their software applications and deliver more reliable and effective products to their customers.

Qualities Essential for a Software Tester

A software tester should have a variety of qualities in order to excel in their role. Some of the essential qualities are:

1. Technical Skills: The tester should possess technical knowledge to understand the software system and testing related tools. The tester should have a basic understanding of programming languages, software development methodologies, and testing frameworks.

2. Analytical Skills: The tester should have strong analytical skills in order to identify issues and solve them systematically. The tester should have an eye for detail and be able to think critically.

3. Communication Skills: The tester should be able to communicate effectively with peers, developers, and stakeholders. They must be able to document test scenarios, report issues, and provide feedback.

4. Team Player: The tester should be a team player and work well with others. They should be willing to help others and be open to feedback.

5. Time Management: The tester should be able to manage their time effectively and prioritize tasks based on their importance. The tester should also be able to work under pressure and meet deadlines.

6. Curiosity: The tester should have a strong desire to learn new things, stay updated with the latest trends and continuously improve their skills.

By possessing these qualities, a software tester can help ensure that software products are of high quality, meet user requirements, and are delivered on time.

Functional Testing: Overview

Functional testing is a type of software testing that verifies that all aspects and components of a system are working correctly and as per the defined specifications. This type of testing is done to ensure the proper functioning of features, functionality, and performance of the system. It is an essential step in the software development process that ensures that the final product meets the customer requirements and provides a satisfactory user experience.

What is a Bug Report?

A bug report is a document that describes an error or defect in a software product. It includes information such as the steps to reproduce the issue, the expected and actual behavior, the environment in which it occurred, and any error messages or logs related to the problem. Bug reports are typically submitted to software developers or support teams to aid in identifying and fixing the issue.

Non-Functional Testing: A Definition

Non-functional testing is a type of software testing that is performed to assess the quality of a software system's attributes that don't relate to its functionality. These attributes include usability, performance, reliability, security, and scalability. Non-functional testing is important because it helps ensure that software systems are not only functional, but also meet the required standards for quality. This is critical because poor usability, performance, reliability, security, or scalability can lead to user dissatisfaction, legal issues, and financial loss for businesses.

Important Testing Metrics

There are various testing metrics that can be measured to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of testing processes. Some important testing metrics are:

  • Test Coverage: The percentage of code or requirements covered by tests.
  • Defect Density: Number of defects identified in a specific phase or period.
  • Test Case Effectiveness: The percentage of test cases that have found defects.
  • Test Execution Productivity: The number of test cases executed per hour or day.
  • Mean Time to Detect (MTTD): Elapsed time between the occurrence of a defect and its detection.
  • Mean Time to Repair (MTTR): Elapsed time between defect detection and defect resolution.

Tracking these metrics can help optimize the testing process, identify areas for improvement, and ensure high-quality software is delivered to customers.

// Example: calculating test coverage
total_code_lines = 1000
tested_code_lines = 800
test_coverage = tested_code_lines / total_code_lines * 100

Test-Driven Development (TDD): An Overview

Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development approach where tests are created before writing the actual code. In TDD, developers write automated unit tests that define the expected behavior of a piece of code. The code is then written and repeatedly tested until it passes all the unit tests. TDD helps ensure that the code is reliable and meets the requirements of the customer. Additionally, it helps to reduce the costs of development by identifying and fixing issues earlier on in the development process.

Definition of Manual Testing

Manual testing is the process of manually executing test cases to identify defects in software applications. It involves a human tester who follows a set of predefined test cases to ensure the proper functioning of the application under test. Manual testing is a crucial part of the software development lifecycle, as it detects issues that may have been missed in automated testing.

// Sample code for manual testing
// Open the application and navigate to the login page
1. Enter a valid username and password
2. Click on the login button
3. Verify that the user is logged in and the home page is displayed
4. Enter an invalid username and a valid password
5. Click on the login button
6. Verify that an error message is displayed
7. Enter a valid username and an invalid password
8. Click on the login button
9. Verify that an error message is displayed
10. Enter an invalid username and an invalid password
11. Click on the login button
12. Verify that an error message is displayed

Explanation of Cross-Browser Testing

Cross-browser testing is the process of testing web applications across different web browsers to ensure that they render properly and function correctly for all users regardless of their choice of browser. It is an essential step in web development to ensure that users have a consistent user experience regardless of their browser choice.

Automated Testing: Overview

Automated Testing is the process of using software tools to run pre-scripted tests on a software application before it's released to production. It is a technique that is used to ensure the quality of the software and to make sure that it meets the intended requirements. The aim is to automate the repetitive and time-consuming testing tasks to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the testing process.

Understanding the Difference between Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA)

Quality Assurance (QA) refers to the process of ensuring that a product or service meets the established standards, specifications, and requirements. It involves the entire process of planning, designing, and monitoring the quality of a product from start to finish.

On the other hand, Quality Control (QC) is the process of inspection/testing of the product to ensure that it meets the required quality standards. It is done at the end of the product's lifecycle, after it has been produced.

In summary, QA focuses on the prevention of defects and ensuring that the entire process meets the established quality standards while QC focuses on identifying any defects that may have been missed during the development process. Both are crucial in ensuring the delivery of a quality product or service to the end-users or customers.

What is a Software Bug?

A software bug is an error, flaw or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to behave unexpectedly or not function as intended. Bugs can occur in any type of software, from small desktop applications to large enterprise systems, and can be caused by a variety of factors including coding errors, system glitches, and incorrect user input. Identifying and fixing software bugs is an important part of software development and maintenance, as they can lead to reduced system performance, data loss, security vulnerabilities, and user frustration.

//Example of a software bug in Python programming language num1 = 5 num2 = 0 result = num1/num2 print(result) // This will result in a ZeroDivisionError bug

Common Mistakes that can Lead to Major Issues

1. Not testing code thoroughly before deployment.

2. Failing to use version control or not keeping track of changes made to code.

3. Neglecting security measures in the code.

4. Ignoring performance issues and not optimizing code.

5. Hard coding values that should be stored as variables.

6. Overcomplicating the code with unnecessary complexity.

7. Lack of proper error handling and logging.

8. Not following coding standards and best practices.

9. Failing to update and maintain code regularly.

10. Lack of documentation and comments in the code.

//Sample code for using variables instead of hard coding values price_of_item = 50 // never do this- hardcoding the value item_quantity = 10 total_price = price_of_item * item_quantity // always use variables instead of hardcoding values

What is a User Story?

A User Story is a concise statement that describes a feature or functionality from the perspective of an end-user. It is typically written in a simple and conversational language, highlighting the benefits and use cases of a specific feature. User Stories are commonly used in Agile software development to capture requirements and ensure that the end product meets the needs of the users. They help in creating a shared understanding of the product development goals among all stakeholders including developers, designers, and product owners.

Understanding Test Environments

A test environment refers to a setup where software developers can conduct testing in a controlled environment to ensure their software application meets quality standards before releasing it to the public. It is an isolated environment that replicates the functionalities of the live application to mimic real-world usage scenarios.

The test environment includes hardware, networks, database servers, and other necessary tools required for software testing. This environment helps identify potential issues early in the software development cycle and reduces the likelihood of bugs or errors occurring once the software is released to users.

Having a test environment enables developers to carry out various types of testing such as unit testing, integration testing, functional testing, and user acceptance testing. The environment allows them to create test cases, run tests, and analyze results to identify and fix any issues before they reach the production environment.

In summary, a test environment provides developers with a secure platform to test their software before releasing it to the public, thus improving the quality of the product and ensuring customer satisfaction.

List of popular testing tools/frameworks:

  1. Selenium: A widely used open-source tool for web application testing that supports multiple programming languages like Java, Python, and C#. It can automate functional, regression, and GUI testing.
  2. JUnit: A popular unit testing framework for Java-based projects. Developers use it to write and run repeatable tests quickly and efficiently.
  3. TestNG: Another testing framework for Java that supports both unit and integration testing. It helps in grouping tests, parameterization, parallel execution, and generating logs and reports.
  4. Appium: An open-source automation tool for mobile application testing for both iOS and Android platforms.
  5. Cypress: A new-age testing framework for web applications. It boasts of a simple and robust API, easy configuration, and out-of-the-box support for modern frameworks like React, Angular, and Vue.js.
  6. Jasmine: A popular testing framework for JavaScript-based projects. It can be used to test both frontend and backend applications, and it provides an easy-to-read syntax that makes tests more expressive and maintainable.
  7. Protractor: An end-to-end testing framework for Angular-based projects. It uses Selenium under the hood to automate web applications and provides built-in Angular-specific waiting mechanisms and other features that simplify testing.
  8. Postman: An API testing tool used to create, test, and document APIs. It provides an intuitive interface to send HTTP requests, view and analyze responses, and automate testing via collections and scripts.
  9. Robot Framework: A generic automation testing framework for acceptance testing, keyword-driven testing, and behavior-driven testing. It supports a wide range of platforms, technologies, and applications, and it has a user-friendly syntax that enhances collaboration and maintainability.

What are the various severity levels that can be assigned to a bug?

In software testing, bugs can be classified into different categories based on their severity levels. The various severity levels that can be assigned to a bug are as follows:

1. Critical: A bug that causes system failure, severe data loss or security issues. 2. High: A bug that causes significant functional issues, but does not cause system failure. 3. Medium: A bug that causes general functionality issues or non-critical usability issues. 4. Low: A bug that causes minor issues that do not affect the normal operation of the system. 5. Cosmetic: A bug that only causes a minor issue in the user interface.

Assigning severity levels to bugs helps the development team to prioritize and resolve them effectively. Critical and high severity bugs should be resolved as soon as possible, whereas low and cosmetic severity bugs can be resolved at a later stage.

Black-box Testing Explained for Freshers

Black-box testing is a type of software testing where the tester tests the functionality of the software without knowing its internal structure or code. In this method, the tester treats the software as a black-box and tests it as a user. The purpose of black-box testing is to check if the software meets the requirements and specifications given to it.

For example, if a software application is supposed to allow only 10 characters in a user's name, the tester will try to input more than 10 characters to see if the software fails to meet this requirement. This type of testing is done without looking at the code.

Black-box testing is useful for testing the complete functionality of a software system, regardless of its internal workings. It is unbiased and also helps in finding errors that may have been overlooked in the code. As a fresher, it is essential to understand the different types of testing to excel in the field of software testing.


// No code provided with this question

Understanding White-Box Testing

White-box testing is a method of software testing where the tester has knowledge of the internal workings of the software being tested. This type of testing is also known as clear-box testing, structural testing, or code-based testing.

During white-box testing, the tester will examine the actual code of the software and test individual functions and modules. This allows for more thorough testing and can help identify issues with the code itself.

White-box testing is often used in conjunction with black-box testing, where the tester only has knowledge of the external behavior of the software. Together, these two methods can provide comprehensive testing coverage and ensure that the software is functioning correctly.

Differences between Manual and Automated Testing

Manual Testing is a type of software testing that is executed manually by a tester who manually verifies that the software meets the specified requirements without the use of any automation tools. It includes a set of test cases that are executed manually without any program or script.

On the other hand, Automated Testing is the use of software tools to run tests that repeat pre-defined actions and compare actual results with expected results. It is an automated way of testing the software application where a script or software tool is used to execute the tests.

The primary differences between manual and automated testing are:

  • Cost: Automated testing is initially more expensive to set up, but over time it becomes more cost-effective than manual testing.
  • Speed: Automated testing is faster than manual testing as it can run large tests or suites of tests on different operating systems and browsers, with different configurations and data sets, more quickly and with less effort.
  • Accuracy: Automated testing is more accurate than manual testing as it eliminates the risk of human error, and also provides detailed logs to track testing progress and pinpoint any issues.
  • Reusability: Automated testing is more reusable than manual testing, which allows tests to be run repeatedly and consistently, even for different releases of the software.
  • Human Insight: Manual testing provides human insight into the software application under test which can lead to finding defects that might otherwise be missed by automated testing.

In conclusion, both manual and automated testing have their pros and cons, but a combination of both is often the best approach to ensure software quality and reliability.

// sample automated test using Selenium WebDriver and Java @Test public void testLogin() { WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); driver.get(""); WebElement username = driver.findElement("username")); WebElement password = driver.findElement("password")); WebElement submit = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//button[contains(.,'Login')]")); username.sendKeys("myusername"); password.sendKeys("mypassword");; assertTrue(driver.getCurrentUrl().equals("")); driver.quit(); }

Alpha Testing: Definition and Explanation

Alpha testing is a type of software testing where the software is tested in a simulated or real environment by internal teams, before it is released to external customers. This type of testing is typically done during the early stages of the software development process and is usually done in-house. The purpose of the alpha testing is to identify issues, bugs or defects in the software, fix them, and ensure the software meets the user requirements and design specifications. The testing is done by teams within the organization and not by end-users. Alpha testing is done in a controlled environment before the software is release for beta testing.

Beta Testing Explained

Beta testing refers to the final stage of testing in which a product is tested by real users in a real environment before it is officially released to the public. This testing is conducted to identify any issues or bugs that were not identified during the development and testing process. Beta testing helps companies to refine their products and improve the user experience before launching it to the public.

Exploratory Testing: A Brief Overview

Exploratory testing is a technique of testing software applications that is focused on discovering defects, defects that might hide from scripted test cases. It is an approach that relies heavily on the tester’s creativity, intuition, and experience. Rather than following a strict test plan, exploratory testing allows testers to learn more about the application under test as they test it. This helps them to identify defects that are not easily noticed through predefined scripts. Exploratory testing is highly adaptable and can be used in conjunction with other testing techniques to improve the quality and effectiveness of software testing. Overall, it helps to ensure that the software being tested meets the end-user's expectations and is of high quality.

End-to-End Testing: Definition and Explanation

End-to-end testing is a software testing method that checks the functionality of an application, from beginning to end, including all its integrations with other systems. It verifies that all components of the application are working together as expected and that the system meets all of its requirements. This type of testing ensures that the application is ready to be used by the end user. End-to-end testing can help identify issues in the application early on in the development process, saving time and resources in the long run.

Understanding Static Software Testing

Static software testing is a technique used in software development to identify defects without actually executing the code. It involves analyzing the code and associated documentation to detect potential errors, security flaws, and optimization issues. This technique can be executed manually or with the support of various tools. Static software testing is beneficial in finding deficiencies in the software early in the software development cycle, reducing the cost of fixing errors and enhancing the overall quality of the software system.

Understanding Dynamic Software Testing

Dynamic software testing is a type of testing that involves running software applications to find defects and bugs while the program is executing. It is a fundamental step in the software development process that aims to improve software quality and reliability. This type of testing includes functional testing, performance testing, security testing, and other types of testing to ensure that the software application meets the intended requirements and specifications. Dynamic software testing utilizes various techniques and tools to ensure that an application is thoroughly tested and that all issues are identified and addressed before release to the end-users.

Understanding API Testing

API testing is a software testing technique that focuses on testing the Application Programming Interface (API) of a software system. In simple terms, API testing is conducted to ensure that the API is functioning as expected and delivering the desired results.

During API testing, requests are sent to the API with various input parameters to verify its response. The output is then compared to the expected results. API testing is an essential part of software testing, and is used to ensure that the application is working as intended and that errors are identified and fixed before the system is released to end-users.

// Sample code for API testing using Postman tool 
var request = require('request');
var options = {
  'method': 'GET',
  'url': '',
  'headers': {
    'Authorization': 'Bearer your_access_token_here'
request(options, function (error, response) {
  if (error) throw new Error(error);

Explaining Code Coverage

Code coverage refers to the percentage of code that is executed during software testing. It is a metric used to measure the effectiveness of testing by determining how much of the code is being exercised. The aim is to achieve a high level of code coverage to ensure that bugs and errors are caught before the software is released to the public. Code coverage is essential for ensuring the quality of software products.

Benefits of Manual Testing

Manual testing allows software testers to identify visual defects and to verify the functionality of the software by performing testing manually. Here are some benefits of manual testing:

1. Comprehensive Testing: Manual testing allows testers to test the software comprehensively by performing different types of testing such as functional, integration, regression, and user acceptance testing.

2. Human Observation: Manual testing enables testers to observe how the software behaves during testing. This helps in identifying any issues that might not have been identified through automated testing.

3. Cost-Effective: Manual testing is comparatively less expensive compared to automated testing, which requires a significant investment in tools and resources.

4. Flexibility: Manual testing allows testers to identify and fix issues on the go. Testers can change the testing approach as needed to ensure that all aspects of the software are tested.

5. Early Detection of Defects: Manual testing helps in the early detection of defects, which can prevent costly rework later in the software development life cycle.

In conclusion, manual testing plays a significant role in ensuring the quality of software by offering comprehensive testing, human observation, cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and early detection of defects.

Drawbacks of Manual Testing

Manual testing has some drawbacks that can affect the efficiency and accuracy of the testing process. Some of these drawbacks are:

1. Time-consuming: Manual testing is a time-consuming process as it requires the testers to perform repetitive tasks, which can be tedious and can lead to errors.

2. Limited scope: Manual testing has a limited scope as it is not possible to test every aspect of the software manually. This can result in some defects being overlooked.

3. Human error: Manual testing is prone to human errors, such as overlooking defects, inaccurate reporting, and subjective analysis.

4. Cost: Manual testing can be expensive, as it requires a team of testers who need to be trained and paid for their work.

5. Inconsistency: Manual testing can be inconsistent if the same test cases are not performed in the same way each time.


<!--H3 tag for the title-->
<H3>Drawbacks of Manual Testing</H3>

<!--P tag for the content-->
Manual testing has several drawbacks that can impact the testing process's efficiency and accuracy. Some of these include its time-consuming nature, limited scope, propensity for human errors, high costs, and inconsistency. Manual testing involves repetitive tasks that can become tedious and result in overlooked defects. The process's limited scope makes testing every aspect of the software manually impossible, resulting in some overlooked defects. Human errors can creep into the process and cause inaccurate reporting and subjective analysis, which can adversely affect the testing's quality. Furthermore, manual testing can be very costly and inconsistent if the same test cases are not performed in the same manner each time.

Procedure for Manual Testing

Manual Testing is the process of manually verifying the functionality of a software application in order to detect any defects or bugs. Generally, these are the steps involved in manual testing:

1. Understand the software application requirements.
2. Develop a test plan.
3. Create test cases based on the test plan.
4. Execute the test cases.
5. Analyze and report any defects or bugs found during testing.
6. Re-test the resolved defects to ensure they have been completely fixed.
7. Perform regression testing to ensure that the changes made to the application have not introduced any new defects.
8. Create a test report summarizing the testing results.

It is important to follow a structured approach to manual testing to ensure comprehensive testing coverage and to detect any defects or bugs early in the software development cycle.

Types of Manual Testing

Manual testing includes several types of testing that ensure the product's quality. Some of these are:

1. Unit Testing: It evaluates individual code units.

2. Integration Testing: It examines different code modules that work together.

3. System Testing: It tests the complete system with all its components.

4. Acceptance Testing: It checks if the product meets the user requirements.

5. Regression Testing: It ensures that changes do not negatively affect existing features.

6. Black Box Testing: It validates the system without knowledge of internal workings.

7. White Box Testing: It tests internal code and logic.

8. Performance Testing: It evaluates the system's performance under varying conditions.

9. Usability Testing: It evaluates the system's ease of use for end-users.

10. Security Testing: It ensures that the system is secure against attacks and threats.

In addition to these, there are several other types of manual testing, such as GUI testing, exploratory testing, localization testing, data testing, and more, that testers can use based on the project's needs.

Manual Testing Tools

There are several manual testing tools available, some of them are:

  • Testpad
  • TestLink
  • TestRail
  • JIRA
  • TestLodge
  • qTest
  • Xray
  • Test Collab
  • Zephyr
  • HP ALM (Application Lifecycle Management)

Note: Manual testing tools are used to perform manual testing of software applications. These tools provide features to manage and execute test cases, log defects, track testing progress, and generate reports.

When Should You Choose Automated Testing over Manual Testing?

Automated testing is preferred over manual testing in the following scenarios:

  1. When regression testing is required
  2. When there is a need for frequent testing
  3. When there are multiple combinations of data that need to be tested
  4. When the application has a large number of users and requires simultaneous testing
  5. When there is a need for load testing to check the application's performance under high loads
  6. When the application is stable enough for automated testing to be efficient and effective

It is important to note that automated testing should not replace manual testing entirely but should be used in conjunction with it. Manual testing is still required for exploratory testing, usability testing, and other types of testing that cannot be easily automated. A good testing strategy should balance the use of automated and manual testing to ensure that the application is thoroughly tested.

Determining when to use Manual Testing vs. Automated Testing

As a software tester, there are scenarios when it’s more appropriate to use manual testing, while in some cases, automated testing might be the better option.

Manual testing is ideal for scenarios where you need to test the application's functionality, UI, and usability, especially for exploratory testing, and testing complex features. Also, it’s beneficial for ad-hoc testing that requires a tester to think like an end-user.

On the other hand, automated testing is recommended for executing repetitive tasks or regression testing for efficient results, especially when using a continuous integration environment. It’s also suitable for stress, load, and performance testing to save time and resources.

It’s important to bear in mind that while automated testing provides a faster, more reliable, and less time-consuming testing process, some scenarios require human intelligence and creativity. Moreover, automated testing solely takes into account pre-written test cases as compared to manual testing, where the testers have the freedom to create and adapt test cases and perform exploratory testing.

Therefore, it's essential to consider the requirements of the project and the testing approach that will suit the purpose.

Methods for Code Coverage

There are several methods that can be used for code coverage, including:

1. Statement coverage 2. Branch coverage 3. Condition coverage 4. Path coverage

Code coverage is an important aspect of software testing as it helps to ensure that all parts of the code are executed and tested thoroughly. By using one or more of these methods in code coverage analysis, developers can identify areas of the code that may be prone to errors or bugs, and take corrective action to improve the overall quality and reliability of the software.

Definition of Latent Defect

A latent defect is a problem or fault in a product or property that is not immediately noticeable or detectable, but is hidden or concealed. It may not be apparent until some time after the purchase or acquisition of the item or property.

Understanding the Difference between Validation and Verification

Validation and verification are two terms that are commonly used in software development and testing. Although they may seem interchangeable, there is a distinct difference between the two.

Verification refers to the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether it meets the specified requirements or not. In other words, it ensures that the software is built according to the design and that it fulfills its intended purpose. Verification is primarily concerned with the correctness and completeness of the software product.

Validation, on the other hand, is the process of evaluating the software to determine whether it satisfies the customer's needs and expectations. It confirms whether the software actually does what it was designed to do and whether it meets the needs of the end-users. Validation is primarily concerned with the effectiveness and usefulness of the software product.

In summary, verification is concerned with building the software correctly, while validation is concerned with building the correct software. Both verification and validation are essential components of software testing and quality assurance, and they should be performed throughout the software development life cycle to ensure that the final product meets all requirements and expectations.

Understanding the Term "Testbed"

A testbed is a platform or environment that is used for testing new technologies or products before their official release. It allows developers to identify and fix any issues or bugs before launching the product or technology to the public. Testbeds can be physical or virtual and are often used in industries such as software development, aerospace engineering, and telecommunications. In software development, for example, a testbed can be used to try out new features and identify any errors or problems in the code before releasing it to end-users.

Importance of Documentation in Manual Testing

Documentation plays a critical role in manual testing as it helps testers in maintaining a record of all the tests performed and their results. It helps in tracking the progress of testing and also serves as a reference guide for developers and other team members.

Effective documentation includes test plans, test cases, test scripts, test results and any defects found during testing. A well-documented test plan defines the scope and goals of testing, timelines, testing resources and the responsibilities of each team member. Test cases provide a detailed description of the test scenario, inputs and expected output which needs to be tested. Test scripts provide a step-by-step guide to execute the test cases and record the test results. Documentation of defects found during testing helps to identify the root cause of the defects and to track their resolution.

In conclusion, documentation is an essential part of manual testing as it serves as a reference guide and helps in tracking progress, identifying defects and their resolution. Proper documentation ensures effective communication among team members and ensures the timely delivery of quality software.

Test Cases

A test case is a set of instructions and conditions that describe inputs, actions, or events and their expected outcomes to determine whether a specific feature or functionality of a software application is working correctly. Test cases are used in software testing to ensure that the application is fully functional, defect-free, and meets the requirements specified by the business or end-users. They are typically designed and executed by software testers and can be automated or done manually. The results obtained from the test cases help in identifying any defects or issues in the application and assist in improving its overall quality.

Attributes of a Test Case

A test case can have several attributes, including:

  • Test case ID
  • Test case title
  • Description of the test case
  • Pre-conditions for the test case
  • Steps to execute the test case
  • Expected results
  • Actual results
  • Status of the test case (pass/fail)
  • Severity/priority of any issues found
  • Assigned tester or owner of the test case
  • Date created and last updated
// Example test case
test_case_id = "TC001"
test_case_title = "Login with valid credentials"
test_case_description = "Test the ability to login with a registered username and password"
preconditions = "User must have a registered username and password"
steps = "1. Navigate to the login page  2. Enter valid username and password  3. Click the login button"
expected_results = "User should be redirected to the home page"
actual_results = "User was redirected to the home page"
status = "Pass"
issue_severity = "Low"
assigned_tester = "John Smith"
date_created = "2022-07-01"
last_updated = "2022-07-02"

What is a Test Plan and What Does it Include?

A test plan is a document that outlines the approach, objectives, and scope of software testing. It describes the testing activities, resources needed, timelines, and deliverables. A well-written test plan includes the following:

  • Introduction: provides context and background information about the software being tested
  • Objectives: clearly defines the goals and objectives of the testing process
  • Scope: outlines the features and functions to be tested and identifies what areas will not be tested
  • Test Strategy: describes how testing will be performed, including methods, tools, and techniques
  • Test Environment: lists the hardware and software requirements for testing
  • Test Cases: details the specific tests to be executed to verify the software's functionality and performance
  • Schedule: provides the timeline for testing activities
  • Roles and Responsibilities: identifies the team members involved in testing and their respective duties
  • Risks and Mitigation: outlines the potential risks and how they will be mitigated
  • Deliverables: specifies the testing documents and reports to be produced as part of the testing process

The test plan serves as a roadmap for testing activities and ensures that the software is tested thoroughly and effectively.

Test Report: Overview and Contents

A test report is a document that summarizes the results of testing activities conducted on a software application or product. It provides information on the quality, reliability, and performance of the product or application being tested.

The contents of a test report may include details about the testing environment, test objectives, testing activities conducted, the test cases executed, test results, defects found, and recommendations for improvements. It may also contain graphs, charts, and other visual aids to help understand the data.

The test report serves as a crucial tool for stakeholders to evaluate the status of the software being tested and determine if it meets the desired quality standards. It also helps in identifying issues and making necessary improvements before the final release of the product or application.

Meaning of Test Deliverables

Test deliverables refer to the artifacts or documents that need to be created as part of the testing process. These deliverables include test plans, test cases, test scripts, test reports, and other such documents. They serve as a record of the testing activities performed and provide information on the test results. Test deliverables are essential for ensuring thorough testing, effective communication, and proper documentation of the testing process.

Differences between Bug, Defect, and Error

In software testing, the terms bug, defect, and error are used interchangeably to refer to a flaw or issue that affects the functioning of a program. However, there are subtle differences between these terms:

  • Bug: This term is used to describe a programming flaw that causes unexpected behavior or results in a software program. Bugs often occur due to mistakes made during the development process, such as syntax errors or logic errors.
  • Defect: This term is more broadly used to describe any flaw or issue in a software product. A defect can refer to a bug, but it can also refer to other problems such as usability issues or performance problems.
  • Error: This term refers to any mistake or oversight in coding, design, or testing that results in a software problem. Errors can include coding mistakes, incorrect assumptions, or inadequate testing.

In summary, a bug is a specific type of defect that is caused by a programming error, while an error is a more general term that can refer to any type of mistake or oversight in the software development process.

// example of code with a bug
public class Calculator {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    int num1 = 10;
    int num2 = 0; // bug: dividing by zero
    int result = num1 / num2;
    System.out.println("Result: " + result);

Use-Case Testing Explanation

Use-Case Testing is a software testing technique that focuses on testing scenarios that represent real-life situations where a system is being used. In this technique, the tester identifies all possible use cases for the system and then creates test cases based on these use cases.

Test cases are designed to verify that the system behaves as expected in each use case. Use-case testing is a way of ensuring that the software meets the requirements of the user or customer.

It is an effective method of testing as it helps to reveal defects that may occur in the system during actual use. Use-case testing also helps in improving the user experience by ensuring that the system is user-friendly and functions as expected.

Use-case testing can be performed manually or automated using various tools and frameworks. It is especially useful for testing complex software applications that have a large number of use cases.

Understanding Test Matrix and Traceability Matrix

In software testing, a test matrix is a document that shows the relationship between test cases and requirements. It is a tool used to ensure that all requirements are covered with corresponding test cases.

On the other hand, a traceability matrix is a document that maps and traces user requirements with test cases. It helps to ensure that all requirements are tested and that there is complete test coverage. Additionally, it helps to identify any gaps in test coverage.

Both these matrices are essential in the software testing process and help to ensure that the software meets the intended requirements.

Definition of Positive and Negative Testing:

Positive and negative testing are two types of software testing that verify the behavior of an application under different conditions.

Positive testing checks whether an application works as expected with valid input conditions. It aims to find errors in functionality when the application behaves incorrectly or fails to respond to valid inputs.

Negative testing checks whether an application can detect and handle invalid input conditions. It tests the application's ability to handle unexpected or incorrect user input properly without crashing or producing incorrect results.

Both types of testing are essential for ensuring the quality and reliability of software applications.

The following are some examples of positive and negative testing:

  • Positive testing: Verifying that a login form accepts valid usernames and passwords, or confirming that a search function returns the expected results.
  • Negative testing: Entering invalid login credentials or searching for non-existent data to test whether the application can detect and handle these inputs correctly.

//Example of positive testing

def test_login_successfully(self):
    username = "example_user"
    password = "password123"
    result = login(username, password)
    assert result == True

//Example of negative testing

def test_login_fails_with_invalid_credentials(self):
    username = "invalid_user"
    password = "wrong_password"
    result = login(username, password)
    assert result == False

Understanding Critical Bugs in Software Testing.

A critical bug in software testing refers to a severe issue in the software that affects its performance, functionality, or security. It can cause the application to crash, data loss, system failure, or significant errors that prevent the software from functioning correctly.

As a software tester, identifying critical bugs is crucial to ensure the quality of the software and prevent negative impacts on end-users. It is essential to report these bugs to the development team immediately and prioritize their resolution.

Understanding User Acceptance Testing (UAT)

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is a crucial phase in the software testing process, where a sample group of end-users or clients verify the system's functionality before deployment. This type of testing validates whether the software meets the user's requirements and confirms that the system is ready for production use. It helps to identify bugs, glitches, or other issues that may impact user experience, ensuring that the final product is reliable, efficient, and user-friendly.

Can System Testing Be Performed at Any Stage?

System testing can be conducted at any stage of the software development life cycle. It is typically performed after the completion of integration testing and before the final acceptance testing stage. However, it can also be carried out earlier in the development process.

The purpose of system testing is to evaluate the functionality, performance, and reliability of the software system as a whole. It involves testing the system's behavior in different operating environments and scenarios to ensure that it meets the specified requirements and user expectations.

By conducting system testing early in the development process, any defects or issues can be identified and addressed promptly, reducing the chances of significant problems arising later on. This can help ensure a smooth and successful launch of the software product.

// Example code for system testing 

Monkey Testing and Performance Testing

Monkey testing is a type of testing where a series of random inputs are given to the software system to check its stability and robustness. The goal of monkey testing is to identify any crashes, freezes, or unexpected behavior in the system.

On the other hand, performance testing is focused on evaluating the system's ability to handle a specific workload. The goal of performance testing is to determine the system's response time, scalability, reliability, and resource usage under different levels of load, stress, and traffic.

Performance testing can involve several techniques, including load testing, stress testing, endurance testing, and spike testing. These techniques help to identify any performance vulnerabilities or bottlenecks and suggest optimizations for better performance.

In conclusion, while monkey testing and performance testing differ in their approach and objective, they are both crucial in ensuring that a software system is reliable, stable, and performs at an optimal level.

Test Stub vs Test Driver

In software testing, a test stub and a test driver are two different components used for testing software modules.

A test driver is a program that helps to control and execute the testing of a particular software module. It provides the necessary environment for testing and sets up the conditions required for the module to be tested.

On the other hand, a test stub is a small piece of code that is used to simulate the behavior of a dependent module that a particular software module relies on. It returns pre-defined values or mimics the actual behavior of the dependent module for testing purposes.

The main difference between a test driver and a test stub is that the former is used to test the module being developed while the latter is used to test the modules it depends on.

Using a test driver and a test stub can help to test software modules in isolation and ensure that they function correctly when integrated into the larger system.

// Example of a test driver in Java

public class ExampleTestDriver {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      // set up environment for testing
      // execute tests on module
      // collect and output test results

// Example of a test stub in Java

public class ExampleTestStub {
   public int exampleMethod(int arg) {
      // return pre-defined value or mimic behavior of dependent module for testing purposes

Endurance Testing or Soak Testing

Endurance testing or soak testing is a type of software testing that aims to determine how well a system performs under sustained use. The objective of this type of testing is to validate the system's ability to handle a predetermined level of activity over an extended period of time without experiencing any failures or degradation in performance. The testing may involve simulating hundreds or thousands of simultaneous users or transactions for hours or even days to check the system's resilience to handle such loads and avoid crashes or data loss. The results of endurance testing allow developers to identify and fix any potential issues before the software is released to users.

Why Localization Testing is Important?

Localization testing is crucial for ensuring that a product is culturally appropriate and can be used by people from different regions and language backgrounds. Without proper localization testing, a product may be unusable or even offensive to users from certain regions. Additionally, localization testing helps to identify any linguistic or formatting errors that may occur when the product is translated into different languages and ensures that it meets the linguistic and cultural standards of the target audience.

Localization testing also helps to build brand loyalty and trust among international customers by demonstrating that a company values and respects their language and cultural differences. It is an investment that can pay off in the long run by increasing customer satisfaction and driving revenue growth in new markets.

Path Testing

Path testing is a software testing technique where test cases are designed to cover all possible execution paths in a piece of code. The primary goal of path testing is to ensure that all the possible paths are executed at least once. This helps in identifying any faults or errors in the code that may arise due to unexpected conditions or input data. Path testing requires a good understanding of the code and its logic to create a comprehensive set of test cases that cover all possible paths. It is especially useful for complex programs with many conditional statements and loops.

Baseline Testing and Benchmark Testing

In software testing, baseline testing refers to the testing of the initial, unaltered version of an application prior to any changes or updates being made. The purpose of baseline testing is to establish a reference point, or baseline, against which future versions of the application can be tested, in order to identify any changes or deviations that may impact its performance.

On the other hand, benchmark testing involves comparing the performance of a system or application against a set of pre-established standards or benchmarks. The purpose of benchmark testing is to determine how well a system or application is performing compared to industry standards and best practices, and to identify areas for improvement. Benchmark testing may involve conducting a series of tests using various load levels and conditions, in order to simulate real-world usage scenarios and stress-test the system.

Fuzz Testing and Its Significance

Fuzz testing is a software testing technique that involves providing a large amount of random, unexpected, or invalid input data to a program in order to detect potential vulnerabilities or crashes. The idea behind fuzz testing is to simulate real-world scenarios in which users may enter incorrect or unexpected data into the program.

Fuzz testing is often used in security testing to identify weaknesses in software that could be exploited by attackers. By exposing a program to a variety of inputs, fuzz testing can help uncover potential security flaws that may not be evident through other testing methods.

Another important benefit of fuzz testing is its ability to uncover bugs and errors in software that may not be caught through traditional testing techniques. By subjecting a program to a wide range of inputs, fuzz testing can help identify edge cases and other uncommon scenarios that could cause unexpected behavior or crashes.

Overall, fuzz testing is an important tool for ensuring the reliability and security of software. By uncovering potential vulnerabilities and errors, fuzz testing can help developers improve the quality of their programs and prevent issues before they become major problems for users.

Understanding Data Flow Testing

Data flow testing is a type of white-box testing technique that aims to check the flow of data throughout a software application. It seeks to identify potential errors or defects that may arise as a result of data manipulation or transformation at various points in the program's execution.

This method involves analyzing the input and output values of a given function or module, tracing their path through the system, and verifying that they are consistent with the intended behavior of the software. If inconsistencies or discrepancies are found, they can be flagged as potential issues that require further investigation and correction.

Data flow testing is especially useful in detecting defects related to variables that are not initialized or declared properly, variables that are not used appropriately, or variables that are assigned erroneous values. It helps ensure that data is processed correctly, and that the results of computations or operations are accurate.

The Significance of Agile Testing

Agile testing is crucial in the software development life cycle as it ensures that quality software is delivered to end-users within the specified timeline. The importance of agile testing is as follows:

1. Early detection of defects: Agile testing starts at the beginning of the development process, which helps identify defects and bugs in the early stages. Early detection means early resolution, which can save a lot of time and effort.

2. Customer satisfaction: Agile testing involves customer feedback and continuous collaboration, resulting in high-quality products that meet customer requirements.

3. Improved communication: Agile testing encourages communication between developers, testers, and business analysts. This communication ensures that everyone is on the same page, and the project progresses smoothly.

4. Flexibility: Agile testing provides the flexibility to change requirements and make adjustments to the software development process, which can save time and money.

5. Continuous delivery: Agile testing can enable continuous delivery and integration, ensuring the working software is regularly available to stakeholders. This quick feedback loop allows for rapid improvements and adjustments.

In summary, agile testing is vital for delivering high-quality software to end-users, improving collaboration and communication, and enabling flexibility in software development.

Different Categories of Debugging

Debugging can be broadly categorized into the following categories:

- Syntax errors
- Logical errors
- Runtime errors
- Semantic errors
- Heisenbugs
- Documentation bugs

Syntax errors are the most common type of errors and are caused by violations in the syntax of the programming language being used. Logical errors, also known as bugs, occur when the program runs successfully but produces unintended or incorrect outcomes. Runtime errors occur when the program terminates due to an unexpected condition that cannot be handled. Semantic errors occur when the code performs in an unexpected way but does not generate any error message. Heisenbugs are bugs that seem to disappear or alter their behavior when attempts are made to study, debug, or fix them. Documentation bugs are bugs that occur in the documentation provided for the code.

Interview Questions for Experienced Manual Testers

Question 68: Can you explain what Selenium is and what are its benefits?

Answer: Selenium is an open-source automation testing tool used to test web applications. It supports different programming languages such as Java, C#, Python, Ruby, and JavaScript. With Selenium, testers can create test scripts that can automate repetitive test cases, integration tests, and cross-browser compatibility tests. Its benefits include:

  • It allows running test cases across different browsers and operating systems simultaneously
  • It supports parallel testing to optimize test execution time
  • It provides flexibility in choosing the programming language for test automation
  • It enables integration with various testing frameworks such as TestNG and JUnit
  • It provides a rich library of functions for a wide range of automation testing scenarios
In summary, Selenium is a powerful tool that enables testers to automate web application testing and achieve high-quality software faster and more efficiently.

Explanation of Boundary Value Analysis

Boundary value analysis is a software testing technique used for testing different ranges of input values. In this technique, we focus on both the minimum and maximum boundaries of the input values, as these are where the chances of errors and defects are the highest. By evaluating and testing these values, we can ensure that the software performs optimally within the expected range of input values.

Understanding Regression Testing

Regression testing is the process of testing software to ensure that new modifications or additions have not caused any preexisting functionality to fail. It involves retesting the existing functionalities of the software after each change to ensure that other parts of the software have not been adversely affected. The main goal of regression testing is to guarantee that the software still performs as expected after any changes have been made.

What is Unit Testing?

Unit testing is a software testing technique where individual units or components of a program are tested in isolation from the rest of the system to ensure their correctness. The purpose of unit testing is to identify and fix defects before the code is integrated into larger components. Unit testing is typically performed by developers and automates the testing process to provide rapid feedback on code changes. This helps to catch issues early in the development cycle before they can cause greater problems downstream. Code:

HTTP Status Codes and their Meanings

HTTP is an application protocol that is used to transfer data over the web. It uses status codes to communicate the success or failure of a client's request to the server. The different types of HTTP status codes are:

1xx (Informational):

This status code is used to indicate that the server has received the client's request, and is continuing to process it.

2xx (Successful):

This status code is used to indicate that the client's request has been successfully received, understood, and accepted by the server.

3xx (Redirection):

This status code is used to indicate that the client must take additional action to complete the request, such as following a redirection.

4xx (Client Error):

This status code is used to indicate that the client's request contains invalid syntax or cannot be fulfilled.

5xx (Server Error):

This status code is used to indicate that the server is aware that it has encountered an error or is otherwise incapable of performing the request.

HTTP status codes help developers troubleshoot issues with web pages and APIs, and provide a standardized way to communicate errors to consumers.

Understanding Test Coverage

Test coverage refers to a process that determines the percentage of code or functionality that has been tested in an application. It measures how well the testing process covers all the code present in the software application. This process is crucial for ensuring the quality of the software and preventing issues that may occur due to untested code. Test coverage helps to identify defects in the application that may result in errors, crashes, or incorrect results. By measuring test coverage, software developers and testers can ensure that the application is thoroughly tested, and all potential issues are identified and fixed.


Browser automation refers to the process of controlling web browsers using automated scripts or programs. It allows developers and testers to automate tasks that are typically performed manually, such as clicking buttons, filling out forms, and navigating between pages. Browser automation tools, such as Selenium and Puppeteer, provide APIs that can be used to write scripts in programming languages like Python and JavaScript. These scripts can be used for tasks like testing web applications, web scraping, and automating repetitive tasks. Browser automation can help save time and reduce errors that can occur when these tasks are performed manually.

What is A/B Testing?

A/B testing is the process of comparing two different versions of a web page, email, or app to determine which one performs better. It involves creating two versions, version A and version B, that differ in one variable, such as a headline or a button color, then exposing each version to a similar group of users and measuring the performance of each version. The data collected is then analyzed to determine the version that performs better in achieving the desired outcome, such as more clicks, sign-ups, or purchases. A/B testing is a useful tool for optimizing digital marketing campaigns and user experiences.

Difference between Retesting and Regression Testing

Retesting and Regression Testing are two types of testing methods used in software testing.

Retesting is performed to ensure that a defect or bug that was previously identified and fixed has been resolved successfully. It involves re-executing the failed test case to confirm that the issue has been addressed and no new defects have been introduced.

Regression Testing, on the other hand, is used to ensure that changes made to the software code do not have any unintended side effects on previously working functionalities. It involves re-executing the existing test cases to make sure that no new bugs or defects have been introduced due to code changes.

The main difference between Retesting and Regression Testing is that Retesting is focused on testing a specific defect, while Regression Testing is more comprehensive and checks for any unintended effects of code changes on the entire system.

In summary, Retesting is performed to validate a particular bug or issue has been resolved, while Regression Testing is done to ensure that no new defects have been introduced as a result of changes made to the software.

System Testing vs. Unit Testing

System testing and unit testing are two types of software testing.

  • System testing is a type of testing where the entire software system is tested as a whole to ensure that it meets the requirements and works as expected.
  • Unit testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing where individual units or components of the software are tested independently to ensure that they are functioning correctly and providing the expected output.

The main difference between system testing and unit testing is that system testing is done on the whole software system, while unit testing is done on individual units or components of the software. System testing is usually done after unit testing to ensure that all the units are integrated correctly.

Unit testing helps in identifying and fixing issues early in the development phase, while system testing ensures that the software system is ready for release and meets the requirements specified by the stakeholders.

Sample code:

//Unit Test Example
public class CalculatorTest {
    public void testAddition() {
        Calculator calculator = new Calculator();
        int result = calculator.add(2, 3);
        assertEquals(5, result);

//System Test Example
public class OrderProcessingTest {
    public void testOrderProcessing() {
        Order order = new Order();
        order.addProduct(new Product("Product A", 100));
        order.addProduct(new Product("Product B", 200));
        OrderProcessor orderProcessor = new OrderProcessor();

Types of Integration Testing

Integration testing can be categorized into the following types:

  • Big Bang Integration Testing: All modules of the application are integrated together and tested at once.
  • Top-Down Integration Testing: Testing begins with high-level modules and then moves to the lower-level modules.
  • Bottom-Up Integration Testing: Testing begins with low-level modules and then moves to the higher-level modules.
  • Sandwich (Hybrid) Integration Testing: Combination of both top-down and bottom-up approaches where testing begins with intermediate-level modules.
  • Mock Testing: Involves using simulated or fake modules in place of actual modules for testing purposes.
Note: Choose the appropriate type(s) of integration testing based on the specific needs of your project.

Popular Integration Testing Tools

There are several popular Integration Testing tools available in the market, some of which are:

- Postman
- SOAPui
- Apache JMeter
- Katalon Studio
- IBM Rational Integration Tester
- Parasoft SOAtest
- CA BlazeMeter
- LoadRunner

These tools offer various functionalities such as API testing, load testing, and performance testing, which help to ensure the smooth integration of different components within a software system. Choosing the appropriate tool depends on the specific requirements of the project and the expertise of the testing team.

Test Harness and Test Closure Explanation

A test harness is a collection of software and test data that a software tester uses to run test cases and report the results. It provides an automated testing environment where tests can be executed consistently and efficiently.

On the other hand, test closure is the process of bringing a testing phase to an end, ensuring that all test activities have been completed, and that all deliverables have been prepared and released. Test closure activities include finalizing and archiving test deliverables, such as test plans and test cases, and evaluating the effectiveness of testing efforts by analyzing test results and metrics.


# Test Harness - Python Example
import unittest

class TestStringMethods(unittest.TestCase):

    def test_upper(self):
        # Test input string in uppercase
        self.assertEqual('HELLO'.upper(), 'HELLO')

    def test_isupper(self):
        # Test if all characters in string are uppercase

    def test_split(self):
        # Test if splitting the string creates expected output
        s = 'hello world'
        self.assertEqual(s.split(), ['hello', 'world'])
        with self.assertRaises(TypeError):

if __name__ == '__main__':

# Test Closure - Example
# Documentation and reporting related tasks
    # Test summary reports
    # Test Work product Evaluation Report
    # Test Closure report
    # Test completion report
    # Test closure activities
    # Test completion activities

Test Scenario Explanation

A test scenario is a detailed description of a user story or a specific requirement that needs to be tested. It outlines the steps that will be taken to test the system or functionality and defines the expected outcomes. Test scenarios are usually created during the planning phase of testing and are essential in ensuring that all aspects of the system have been tested thoroughly and are working as expected.


When testing software or an application, it is important to have a clear understanding of what needs to be tested and how that testing will be carried out. This is where test scenarios come in. A test scenario is a detailed description of what needs to be tested and how that testing will be carried out. It outlines the steps that will be taken to test the system or functionality and defines the expected outcomes.

Test scenarios are usually created during the planning phase of testing. They ensure that all aspects of the system have been tested thoroughly and are working as expected. They provide testers with a clear understanding of what needs to be tested, which helps them create better test cases that cover all the important features of the system.

In summary, test scenarios are an essential part of the testing process that helps ensure that software and applications function as required. By outlining the steps that will be taken to test the system or functionality and defining the expected outcomes, testers are able to identify issues early on and ensure that they are addressed before the software or application is released to the public.

Defect Life Cycle

Defect life cycle refers to the stages through which a software defect passes from discovery to resolution. It includes various stages such as report, analyze, reproduce, fix, verify, and close. The main goal of defect life cycle is to ensure that all defects are detected, tracked, and resolved in a timely and efficient manner to improve the quality of the software product. Following a well-defined defect life cycle helps development teams to easily track the progress of defect resolution and prevent any defects from slipping through the cracks.

Experienced-Based Testing Techniques

Experienced-Based Testing Techniques are testing techniques where testers apply their experience and knowledge to identify potential defects and issues in software applications. There are several types of experienced-based testing techniques such as error guessing, exploratory testing, checklist-based testing, and confirmation testing. These techniques are often used in conjunction with other testing methodologies to enhance the testing process and improve the overall quality of the application. Experienced-based testing techniques rely on the tester's intuition, creativity, and critical thinking skills to effectively detect defects that may not be identified through other methods. Thus, it is important for testers to have a solid understanding of the application, along with domain knowledge and testing experience to successful apply these types of techniques.H3 tag: Difference between Smoke Testing and Sanity Testing

Smoke Testing and Sanity Testing are two types of software testing techniques used in the field of software engineering. Here are the differences between Smoke Testing and Sanity Testing:

1. Smoke Testing is executed to verify if the primary functionalities of the software application are working fine. On the other hand, Sanity Testing is done to check if the defects that were reported have been fixed.

2. Smoke Testing is performed to ensure that the build is ready for further testing. Meanwhile, Sanity Testing is performed to determine if the bug fix or change does not adversely affect the existing functionality of the system in a significant way.

3. Smoke Testing is a type of testing that is executed to cover the breadth of the testing while Sanity Testing is a type of testing that is executed to cover the depth of the testing.

4. Smoke Testing is generally executed after the build is received while Sanity Testing is generally executed after Smoke Testing or Regression Testing.

In summary, Smoke Testing and Sanity Testing are both significant in the software testing process. Smoke Testing assures that the most critical functionalities work smoothly and is a broader test while Sanity Testing assures that the reported defects have been fixed and is a narrower test.

Pesticide Paradox

The pesticide paradox refers to the phenomenon where the use of pesticides can lead to an increase in the population of the pest it was intended to control. This happens because pesticides not only kill the target pests, but also the natural predators and parasites that keep their populations in check. As a result, the pest population can rebound stronger than before, requiring even more pesticides to be applied in a continuous cycle. This not only harms the environment but also poses a threat to human health. Therefore, it is important to adopt alternative pest management strategies that are sustainable and do not rely on heavy pesticide use.

Explanation of Configuration Testing

Configuration Testing is a type of software testing that checks the behavior and performance of a software system under different configurations and settings. Its objective is to ensure that the system performs optimally and as expected in various environments, configurations, and situations.

During Configuration Testing, testers create a matrix of different configurations, including hardware, software, network, and environmental settings, to identify deviations in the software’s behavior in different combinations of configurations. They check if there is any negative impact on the performance, functionality, and user experience of the software.

Configuration Testing helps ensure that the software performs well for various user scenarios, even if the software is used in different locations and environments, and on different platforms. Additionally, it helps uncover bugs that only occur with specific configurations, which allows developers to fix issues for their customers.

In conclusion, Configuration Testing is an essential part of software testing to ensure that the software works well in any possible configuration.

Two Parameters to Check Test Execution Quality

There are many parameters that can be useful to check the quality of test execution, but two important parameters are:

1) Test Coverage: 

This parameter tells us the percentage of the code that has been covered by the executed tests. A higher test coverage indicates better quality of test execution.

2) Defect Density: 

This parameter measures the number of defects found per unit size of code. A lower defect density indicates a better quality of test execution.


This marks the end of the project.

Technical Interview Guides

Here are guides for technical interviews, categorized from introductory to advanced levels.

View All

Best MCQ

As part of their written examination, numerous tech companies necessitate candidates to complete multiple-choice questions (MCQs) assessing their technical aptitude.

View MCQ's
Made with love
This website uses cookies to make IQCode work for you. By using this site, you agree to our cookie policy

Welcome Back!

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign in
Recover lost password
Or log in with

Create a Free Account

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign up
Or sign up with
By signing up, you agree to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. You also agree to receive product-related marketing emails from IQCode, which you can unsubscribe from at any time.