Multiple-Choice Questions and Answers for Software Engineering.

Software Engineering: An Introduction

Software engineering is a disciplined and systematic approach to software development that is cost-effective and produces high-quality software. It is essentially an engineering approach to creating software.

Software Development Life Cycle

The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used in the software industry to design and produce high-quality software. It follows stages of designing, development, and testing before the software is launched.

A typical SDLC life cycle includes:

- Planning - Requirement analysis - Defining and designing the system - Development and coding - Testing - Deployment - Maintenance

There are various SDLC models, including:

- Waterfall Model - Iterative Model - Spiral Model - Big Bang Model - V-Model - Agile Model - RAD Model

Software Prototyping

Software prototyping is a process in which developers create a model of the actual software. The goal is to gain deeper requirements understanding from the user, and the prototype helps gather feedback from the customer. There are two types of software prototyping:

- Rapid Prototyping/Throwaway: Building a prototype with minimal effort to gather requirements from the user, then throwing it away and creating the actual software. - Evolutionary Prototyping: Building a prototype on top of which the actual system can be created.

Testing in Software Engineering

Testing is an essential aspect of software engineering at various stages of software development. Unit testing involves testing a single unit of the software, whereas integration testing involves separately testing a few units, integrating them, and testing again. Regression testing is performed when a new module is added to the software to ensure that the system works well with the change.

System testing is performed when the entire software is ready and working as a system, focusing on the software as a whole. Stress testing is performed under unfavorable conditions to check whether any failure occurs under extreme circumstances.

Software compatibility is tested on different types of operating systems. There are three types of testing: white box testing (dealing with the code directly), black-box testing (not looking at the code), and gray-box testing (a combination of both).

Software Engineer MCQs

The post does not contain any Software Engineer MCQs.

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design

When designing software systems using object-oriented programming, one of the main considerations is how best to understand and model the problem domain. Object-oriented analysis and design focuses on this process, which involves identifying objects and their relationships, as well as their attributes and behaviors.

In this context, object-oriented analysis refers to the process of examining the problem domain in detail, with the aim of identifying the objects that are involved. Object-oriented design, on the other hand, is the process of taking these objects and their relationships and creating the system architecture and structure.

By gaining a thorough understanding of the problem domain and modeling it using object-oriented techniques, developers can build systems that are better integrated and more suitable for the task at hand. It also makes it easier to modify and extend the system in the future, as new requirements arise or the problem domain itself changes.

Best Practices for White-Box Testing

White-box testing should begin after programming has been completed.

// Sample code for white-box testing
public void testFunction() {
   int x = 5;
   int y = 10;
   assert(add(x,y) == 15);

public int add(int a, int b) {
   return a + b;

Unit Testing: Who conducts it?

In general, developers are responsible for conducting unit testing. Unit tests are automated tests that check individual units of the source code, such as functions or methods, to ensure that they perform as expected. The tests are written and executed by the developers themselves to identify and fix bugs or errors before the code advances to higher testing stages. The tests can also serve as regression tests during future development cycles to verify that changes haven't broken pre-existing functionalities.

Classification of White-Box Testing

White-box testing can be classified as structural testing.

// code example
public class WhiteBoxTesting {
  // methods and fields

Categories of Infrastructure Software

Infrastructure software falls under the category of generic products.

// No code for this task.

Understanding the RAD Software Process

// RAD stands for Rapid Application Development.

The RAD (Rapid Application Development) software process refers to a set of agile software development practices that prioritize speed and flexibility in development. Unlike traditional software development methods that may take months or years to complete, RAD focuses on rapid prototyping and quick iteration to meet the changing demands of end-users.

By embracing RAD, development teams can quickly produce functional prototypes, gather feedback from stakeholders, and refine the product iteratively. This approach allows for greater collaboration and agility, reducing the risk of project failure or wasted resources.

In short, the RAD process emphasizes rapid development and quick iteration, enabling development teams to focus on delivering value to end-users as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Simplest Model of SDLC

In the context of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the Waterfall model is considered the simplest model, not the Spiral model.

Identifying Components of Software

In software development, the term "software" refers to a collection of computer programs that perform specific tasks. The correct option among the following is that the software consists of Program+documentation operating procedures. This means that software is composed of computer programs, along with the necessary documentation to operate and maintain those programs.

The documentation includes instructions on how to install, configure, and use the software. Operating procedures guide users on how the software works and how to use it. It is necessary to have documentation and operating procedures, so that the software can be effectively used and maintained.


Here is an example of a program that calculates the sum of two numbers:

def add_numbers(num1, num2):
    """This function adds two numbers and returns the sum."""
    sum = num1 + num2
    return sum
# Example Usage
result = add_numbers(5, 10)


According to the Spiral Model, risk management is the most important feature because it involves identifying potential risks at an early stage of the development process. This helps the developers to anticipate and mitigate possible issues that may arise in the software development lifecycle. This model ensures that the project is completed on time and within budget while maintaining the quality of the product. Therefore, it is crucial to manage risks at each stage of the spiral model to ensure successful software development.

RAD Software Model Phases

The Rapid Application Development (RAD) software model consists of five phases:

  1. Business modeling
  2. Data modeling
  3. Process modeling
  4. Application generation
  5. Testing and turnover

Therefore, the correct answer is option B, which is 5.

Identifying Incorrect Phase in Prototype Model

In the Prototype Model, the incorrect phase among the given options is "Coding". The Prototype Model is a software development model that involves creating a working model of the system before the actual system is developed. The Prototype Model has the following phases:

  1. Quick Design
  2. Prototype Refinement
  3. Customer Evaluation

The "Coding" phase is not a part of the Prototype Model because in this model, only a working model is generated, without actual coding or development of the entire system.

First Step of SDLC

In the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the first step is the Preliminary Investigation and Analysis.

The Evolutionary Process Model

In software engineering, the Evolutionary Process Model is a methodology used to develop software quickly by creating a basic version of the software and then iterating on it based on user feedback. This method allows for rapid prototyping and quick adaptation to changing user requirements.

Out of the options given, the Concurrent Development Model, WINWIN Spiral Model, and Incremental Model all relate to the Evolutionary Process Model. Therefore, the correct option is: None of the above.

Note: It is important to carefully read and understand the question before answering.

Identifying a Fourth-Generation Language

In the realm of computer programming, fourth-generation languages, or 4GLs, are used to refer to a high-level computer programming language that requires little or no coding and is helpful in streamlining the software development process. Here, we are asked to identify a fourth-generation programming language among the options given:

UNIX Shell

The correct answer is UNIX Shell, which is a fourth-generation language. The other options are not fourth-generation languages. COBOL and Fortran are third-generation languages, while C++ is a third or fourth-generation language, depending on how it is used.

Identifying Internal Software Equality

In terms of software development, internal software equality refers to the characteristics of the code that make it perform well and consistently. Among the four options provided, the correct option that refers to internal software equality is reusability.

Reusability refers to the quality of code that allows it to be used multiple times in different contexts without having to be rewritten. This means that these reusable pieces of code are stable, reliable and able to maintain their functionality over time.

// Example of reusable code
function calculateArea(width, height) {
  return width * height;

The function


can be used multiple times, for instance to calculate the area of a room or the area of a window. This demonstrates the concept of code reusability.

Recommended Practices for Software Processes

In software engineering, all of the following practices are recommended for software processes:

  • Software verification
  • Software testing and validation
  • Software designing
  • Software evolution

However, it should be noted that software verification is mainly used for implementing and testing, and may not always be necessary in all cases. Hence, its use should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

// Example of software verification function in Python

def verify_software(input):
    # Implementation of software verification logic
    # ...
    return verified_output

It is important for software engineers to consider all aspects of software development when designing and implementing software processes, in order to ensure the best possible outcome for the software product.

Option Not Applicable to Agile Software Development

Among the given options, the one that is not applicable to agile software development is "Abolishing the project planning and testing."

This option is not applicable because planning and testing are essential components of the software development life cycle (SDLC). In Agile, testing is incorporated into the development process to ensure that the software meets the needs of the customer.

  • Producing only the essential work products is applicable because Agile values working software over comprehensive documentation. Thus, the emphasis is on delivering the most essential functions early and iteratively.
  • Recent Application Development is applicable because Agile prioritizes frequent and continuous delivery of software that responds to feedback and changing requirements.
  • None is not the right answer because one of the options is not applicable to Agile development.

Activities in the System Planning and Designing Phase of SDLC

In the system planning and designing phase of SDLC, the following activities are involved:

  • Parallel run
  • Sizing
  • Specification freeze

Therefore, the correct option is: All of the above.

Major Drawback of the Spiral Model

The major drawback of the Spiral Model is that it allows for the addition of additional functionalities later on in the development process. This can cause several issues such as increased complexity, longer development times, and higher costs. Additionally, this model may not work efficiently for small projects and requires a high amount of risk analysis.

To overcome this issue, it is important to carefully plan and assess the project requirements before beginning development. It is also essential to have a strong approval and documentation control system in place to manage any changes that may occur during the development process.

// example code demonstrating use of the Spiral Model 

Factors Considered in Model Selection

When selecting a model, developers need to consider various factors, including:

  • Requirements of the project
  • The type of project and associated risks
  • The feedback and needs of both the development team and end-users

Thus, all of the above mentioned factors are crucial for model selection.

Models Dependent on User Participation

The RAD (Rapid Application Development) and prototyping models are heavily influenced by user participation, making them prone to generating undesired output if user involvement is lacking. On the other hand, the waterfall and spiral models do not heavily rely on user engagement. The prototyping and spiral models are also somewhat flexible in terms of user participation.

Defining Software

Software refers to a collection of programming code, along with its associated documentation and libraries.

// Example of software in Java programming language
public class Example {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      System.out.println("This is an example of software.");

Correction of Prototype Types in Prototyping Model

Among the following types of prototypes in the Prototyping Model, the incorrect type of prototype is diagonal prototype.

// Example code:
if (prototypeType === 'diagonal') { 
  console.log('This is an incorrect prototype type.'); 
} else { 
  console.log('This is a correct prototype type.'); 

Reasons Why Waterfall Model is Not Suitable

The waterfall model, although widely used in software development, is not suitable for accommodating changes. This means that any project that may require changes during the development process may not be well-suited for the waterfall model. Here are some specific reasons:

  • Accommodating changes: As mentioned earlier, the waterfall model is not designed to handle changes effectively. Any changes requested by clients or stakeholders can cause delays and may require a lot of resources to implement.
  • Complex projects: The waterfall model may not work well for complex projects that require a lot of planning, design, and implementation. These types of projects may benefit more from more flexible models like Agile, which allows for greater collaboration and iterative development.
  • Maintenance projects: Maintenance projects that involve updating or improving existing software may not be suitable for the waterfall model. This is because the waterfall model assumes that all the requirements are known upfront and does not involve much collaboration between developers and clients. For maintenance projects, a more iterative approach may be better suited.
  • Small projects: Although the waterfall model can be used for small projects, it may not be the most efficient approach. Small projects may not require as much planning and design, which are the primary focus of the waterfall model, and a more streamlined process may be more appropriate.
// Example usage of waterfall model when it is suitable

Correct Software Metrics

All of the following are correct software metrics:

  1. Complexity Metrics
  2. Process Metrics
  3. Quality Metrics

Therefore, the correct answer is: All of the above.

// example of complexity metric

function calculateFibonacci(n) {
  if (n == 0 || n == 1) {
    return n;
  else {
    return calculateFibonacci(n-1) + calculateFibonacci(n-2);

// example of process metric

let startTime =;

// code to be timed

let endTime =;
let elapsedTime = endTime - startTime;

console.log("Elapsed Time:", elapsedTime, "ms");

// example of quality metric

function isEven(number) {
  return number % 2 == 0;

function isPrime(number) {
  for (let i = 2; i < number; i++) {
    if (number % i == 0) {
      return false;
  return number > 1;

function isPowerOfTwo(number) {
  return number != 0 && (number & (number - 1)) == 0;

Identification of Model Also Known as Verification and Validation Model

The model that is also known as the Verification and Validation Model is the V-model.

Incorrect Software Layers

The incorrect software layer is Manufacturing, as it is not typically considered in the software layers.

The correct software layers are:

  • Process
  • Tools
  • Method

Efficiency of a Software Product

In the efficiency of a software product, licensing is not included. Instead, factors such as processing time, responsiveness, and memory utilization are considered. It is important to optimize these factors to ensure the software product runs smoothly and efficiently.

Two Dimensions of the Spiral Model

According to the spiral model, there are two dimensions that define the process: radial and angular. The radial dimension represents the progress made in completing each cycle of the spiral, while the angular dimension represents the degree of completeness of each cycle. Therefore, the answer to the question is: Radial, angular.

Agile Software Development Principles

Agile Software Development is based on a combination of both incremental and iterative development methodologies. It emphasizes the importance of continuous collaboration and communication between team members, as well as the flexibility to respond to changing requirements throughout the development process.

The Agile approach prioritizes delivering working software in short cycles, rather than waiting to deliver a complete product at the end of development. This allows for frequent feedback and the ability to quickly course-correct if necessary. By embracing change and prioritizing customer satisfaction, Agile development teams are able to produce high-quality software that meets the needs of their users.

FAST Acronym Meaning

The acronym FAST stands for 'Facilitated Application Specification Technique.'

Requirement Analysis and Diagrams

In the process of Requirement Analysis, all relevant diagrams are considered to ensure a complete understanding of the requirements. However, the activity diagram is not one of the diagrams that are commonly used in Requirement Analysis.

The diagrams that are often used in Requirement Analysis include:

  • Entity Relationship Diagrams (ERD)
  • Use cases
  • State transition diagrams

Thus, the correct answer is that Requirement Analysis does not deal with the Activity diagram.

# Sample code for Requirement Analysis
def requirement_analysis(er_diagram, use_cases, state_diagram):
    # process the diagrams to ensure all requirements are understood
# Example usage
er = EntityRelationshipDiagram()
uc = UseCases()
st = StateTransitionDiagram()
requirement_analysis(er, uc, st)

Understanding SRS Document Terminology

In software development, an SRS (Software Requirements Specification) document is a detailed description of the requirements for a software project, including functional and non-functional requirements. It is also referred to as the black box specification.

The SRS document outlines what the software should do, what features it should have, what performance metrics it should meet, and any constraints that must be followed. It is created by the project stakeholders, including the business analysts, developers, and architects, to ensure that everyone has a shared understanding of what the end product should look like.

The SRS document is essential for planning, developing, testing, and maintaining software over the long term. It serves as the foundation for the project, providing a common reference point for all stakeholders throughout the development lifecycle.

// Example usage of an SRS document in a project:
public class Project {

  private String projectName;

  private String projectDescription;

  private SRSDocument srsDoc;

  private List<TeamMember> teamMembers;



Correctly Including Options in SRS

In the Software Requirement Specification (SRS), the following options are typically included:

- Functionality - Performance - External Interfaces

However, design solutions are not included in SRS. The SRS is a document that describes the software requirements in detail, including the overall purpose of the software, functional and non-functional requirements, constraints, and performance criteria. The design solutions, on the other hand, are the proposed solutions to meet the software requirements and are documented in the Software Design Specification (SDS) document. It is essential to keep the distinction between SRS and SDS clear for effective software development.

Number of Notations for Unified Modeling Language

The total number of different notations for Unified Modeling Language is 9.

// code example showing the 9 different notations
class UML
UML -> ClassDiagram
UML -> ObjectDiagram
UML -> ComponentDiagram
UML -> DeploymentDiagram
UML -> UseCaseDiagram
UML -> SequenceDiagram
UML -> CommunicationDiagram
UML -> StateMachineDiagram
UML -> ActivityDiagram

Identifying Functional Requirements

Functional requirements are specific features that a software system must perform. They define what the software should do. On the other hand, non-functional requirements define how the system should perform. They include features such as usability, reliability, performance, and security.

Given the options listed, it is clear that options A), B), and C) refer to non-functional requirements. Therefore, the correct response is D) 'none', since none of the options specify a functional requirement.

// Example of a functional requirement
public class Calculator {
   public int add(int a, int b) {
     return a + b;

Choosing the Correct Measure for Correctness

In software development, the measure for correctness is vital. There are various measurements, but only one is correct. The common measures for correctness are errors per KLOC, $ per KLOC, defects per KLOC, and none.

Out of these options, defects per KLOC is the most commonly used measurement for correctness.

Identifying Fault-Based Testing Technique


fault_based_testing_technique = "Mutation testing"


Fault-based testing technique focuses on identifying faults or defects in the software application. Among the given options, mutation testing is the fault-based technique. The purpose of mutation testing is to introduce small changes (mutants) in the source code and observe whether the test cases detect these changes. If the tests fail to identify the changes, then it indicates that the tests are not effective enough and need to be improved.

Which views cannot be captured by UML diagrams?

The layer view cannot be captured using a UML diagram.

UML diagrams are used to visually represent various aspects of a software system, including its structure, behavior, and interactions. However, not all views of a software system can be effectively captured using UML diagrams.

The layer view of a software system refers to its organization into separate layers, each of which is responsible for a specific set of functions. While this view is important for understanding how a software system is structured, it cannot be effectively represented using UML diagrams.

On the other hand, UML diagrams are useful for capturing the user view and the structural view of a software system. The user view represents the functionalities and interactions of the system from the user's perspective, while the structural view illustrates the system's components and their relationships.

In conclusion, while UML diagrams are useful for representing many aspects of a software system, they are not suitable for capturing all views of the system.



Understanding Abstraction in Computer Science

Abstraction refers to the process of creating a simplified version of a problem by ignoring unnecessary details. In computer science, abstraction is an important concept that allows programmers to focus on the essential features of a problem without being bogged down by its complexities.

Abstraction is different from encapsulation, which is a way of hiding the implementation details of an object behind a public interface. Abstraction, on the other hand, involves creating a new, simplified model of the problem that can be used to solve it more efficiently.

For example, when designing a database, a programmer may create an abstract model of the data that includes only the most important information, such as names, addresses, and phone numbers. This abstraction allows the programmer to focus on the key features of the database without getting bogged down by the specifics of each individual data point.

Abstraction is also important in software design, where it allows programmers to create generic solutions that can be easily adapted to different contexts. By creating abstract data types, algorithms, and interfaces, programmers can build flexible software systems that can be easily modified and extended over time.

Identifying the Term for Principle of Abstraction

The principle of abstraction is often referred to as modelling.


The term "Decomposition" is commonly used in computer science and programming to refer to the concept of breaking down a complex problem into smaller and simpler parts for easier problem-solving. This concept is also known as the "Divide and Conquer" principle.

Using this approach helps in simplifying the problem-solving process by breaking a large problem into smaller fragments that can be solved easily by dividing them into sub-problems, which can be handled separately. Once the solutions to all sub-problems are obtained, they can then be merged or combined together to form the final solution to the main problem.

This question is not related to the provided task of rephrasing a given sentence. However, the answer to the question is "Test bot" as it is not a commonly used term in software testing.

Incorrect Testing Technique

The incorrect testing technique is collaboration testing. The correct testing techniques are integration testing, system testing, and unit testing.

Types of Code Review

Code review is an essential process in software development that reviews the source code to find and fix bugs, improve code quality, and ensure compliance with coding standards. There are primarily two types of code review.

1. Code Walkthrough:

It is a collaborative and informal code review process that involves a group of developers who discuss the code, share knowledge, and review each other's codes. During code walkthroughs, developers can suggest improvements, identify bugs, and find potential issues in the code.

2. Code Inspection:

It is a more formal code review process that involves a thorough and rigorous evaluation of the source code by a qualified team of developers. In this process, developers use a checklist to evaluate the code for quality, security, and maintainability.

Therefore, the correct option is

 Both A and B


Identifying the Worst Type of Coupling

The worst type of coupling is content coupling. It occurs when one module can modify the data of another module or can control the flow of another module. This form of coupling is highly undesirable and should be avoided as much as possible.

Other types of coupling include data coupling, control coupling, and stamp coupling. Data coupling occurs when two modules only communicate through the exchange of data. Control coupling occurs when one module passes control information to another module. Stamp coupling occurs when two modules have a similar data structure.

To maintain good software design principles, it's important to strive for low coupling and high cohesion between modules.

// Example of content coupling
class ModuleA {
  public void modifyData(ModuleB b) {
    b.setData("new data");

class ModuleB {
  private String data = "original data";
  public void setData(String newData) { = newData;
  public String getData() {

Understanding RUP and PSP

In software engineering, RUP stands for Rational Unified Process, which is an iterative software development framework that outlines the development cycle for a project. On the other hand, PSP stands for Personal Software Process, which is a structured approach to software development that focuses on improving an individual's productivity and quality of work.

Therefore, the correct answer is: RUP stands for Rational Unified Process and PSP stands for Personal software process.

When is Risk Analysis Performed in the Spiral Model?

In the Spiral Model, the 'risk analysis' is performed during each loop.

Which OOP feature enables code reusability?

Inheritance is the OOP feature that enables code reusability.


The acronym COCOMO stands for Constructive Cost Estimation Model.

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