Top Interview Questions for Selenium WebDriver - IQCode (2023)

Selenium WebDriver Architecture and Interview Questions

Selenium WebDriver is a web framework that allows for cross-browser testing. Cross-browser testing is comparing and assessing your website's behavior in various browser contexts to ensure that it provides the best possible user experience regardless of the browser used to access it. This program is used to test web-based applications to ensure they work as expected. Selenium WebDriver allows us to write test scripts in the programming language of our choice. It is an improvement to Selenium RC since it overcomes a few of its shortcomings. Although Selenium WebDriver is unable to handle window components, this limitation can be bypassed by using other tools such as Sikuli or Auto IT.

Selenium WebDriver Architecture: The architecture of Selenium WebDriver comprises:

1. Selenium Client library 2. Browser Drivers 3. JSON wire protocol over HTTP 4. Browsers

Client Libraries:
Selenium supports a variety of libraries, including Ruby, Python, Java, and others, thanks to language bindings created by Selenium developers to ensure language compatibility. You can download all of the supported language bindings of your choice from Selenium's official website.

JSON Wire Protocol:
The acronym JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. It is an open standard that provides a web-based transport method for data transfer between clients and servers. JSON wire protocol supports numerous data structures such as arrays and objects, making it easy to read and write JSON data.

Drivers for Web Browsers:
Selenium provides drivers for each browser, and the browser driver communicates with the relevant browser by creating a secure connection, without revealing the core logic of browser capabilities. These browser drivers are also particular to the test case automation language, such as C#, Python, or Java. You can choose your preferred browser driver based on your linguistic requirements. When using WebDriver to run a test script, the following tasks are performed in the background:

1. For each Selenium Command, an HTTP request is generated and provided to the browser driver. 2. The driver receives the HTTP request from an HTTP server. 3. An algorithm determines all of the steps/instructions to be executed in the browser. 4. After that, the HTTP server receives the execution status and delivers it back to the automation scripts.

Selenium supports a variety of browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer.

Selenium WebDriver Interview Questions for Freshers:

1. What is Selenium WebDriver?

Is Selenium WebDriver a Library?

Yes, Selenium WebDriver is a library in various programming languages such as Java, Python, C#, etc. It enables software developers to automate web browsers and perform various tasks such as navigating through web pages, filling out forms, and clicking links. With the help of WebDriver, developers can create automated test scripts that verify the functionality of web applications.

Is Selenium WebDriver an Interface or a Class?

Selenium WebDriver is an interface in the Selenium Java API. It belongs to the `org.openqa.selenium` package. The implementing classes for WebDriver interface are `FirefoxDriver`, `ChromeDriver`, `EdgeDriver`, and so on. In summary, WebDriver is an interface that allows you to interact with a web browser to perform automated testing.

Types of WebDriver Application Programming Interfaces in Selenium

In Selenium, there are several types of WebDriver Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) available:

  • Java
  • Python
  • C#
  • JavaScript
  • Ruby
  • Perl

Each API has its own syntax and is used with its respective programming language. Selecting the right API depends on the specific requirements of the project and the expertise of the automation testing team.

Programming Languages Supported by Selenium WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver supports multiple programming languages, including Java, Python, C#, Ruby, JavaScript, and PHP.

Open-Source Frameworks Supported by Selenium WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver supports numerous open-source frameworks including TestNG, JUnit, NUnit, and PyUnit. These frameworks provide a structure and set of guidelines for writing automated tests using Selenium WebDriver. By utilizing these frameworks, developers can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their test automation efforts.

What is the super interface of WebDriver?

The super interface of WebDriver is the SearchContext interface. This interface provides the foundational methods for WebDriver to locate elements on a webpage, such as findElement() and findElements(). By implementing the SearchContext interface, WebDriver can interact with various types of web elements and perform actions on them.As there is no line of code given to explain, I cannot provide an explanation. Please provide the line of code in question.

Do I need to use Selenium server to execute Selenium WebDriver scripts?

No, it is not mandatory to use Selenium server to run Selenium WebDriver scripts. WebDriver can communicate directly with the browser without the need for a Selenium server. However, in some cases, using a Selenium server may be required, such as when executing scripts on remote machines or parallel testing. It ultimately depends on the specific requirements of your test automation project.

Explanation of the Command

In Selenium WebDriver, an alternative method to driver.get() to open a URL is driver.navigate().to(). Both methods can be used to open a webpage, but the main difference is that driver.navigate().to() allows you to navigate to an already opened URL in the same browser window, while driver.get() always opens a new browser window.

Additionally, driver.navigate().to() provides more control over the browser history, and you can use methods such as back(), forward(), and refresh() to navigate through the browser history.

Explanation of differences between driver.get() and"URL") methods in Selenium WebDriver

In Selenium WebDriver, both driver.get() and"URL") methods are used to open a web page. However, there are some differences between the two methods.

The main difference is that driver.get() waits for the web page to completely load before moving to the next line of code, whereas"URL") does not wait for the page to fully load.

Additionally, the"URL") method also allows you to navigate to web pages that are not part of the same domain as the currently open page, whereas driver.get() only supports navigating within the same domain.

In terms of syntax, driver.get() simply takes a URL as a string argument and opens the corresponding web page, while"URL") requires a more complex parameter in the form of a URL object.

Overall, it is recommended to use driver.get() whenever possible, as it ensures that the page has fully loaded before moving on to the next line. Use"URL") only when you need to navigate to a web page outside of the current domain.

Difference between driver.getWindowHandle() and driver.getWindowHandles() in Selenium WebDriver

In Selenium WebDriver, the methods driver.getWindowHandle() and driver.getWindowHandles() are used to handle multiple windows. The main difference between the two is:

- driver.getWindowHandle() method is used to get the handle of the current window. - driver.getWindowHandles() method is used to get the handles of all the opened windows.

Here's an example of how to use these methods:


// Get the handle of the current window
String currentWindowHandle = driver.getWindowHandle();

// Get the handles of all the opened windows
Set<String> allWindowHandles = driver.getWindowHandles();

By using these methods, it becomes easy to switch between windows and perform actions on them.

Differences between driver.close() and driver.quit() methods

In Selenium WebDriver, both driver.close() and driver.quit() methods are used to close the browser. However, there are differences between the two methods:

1. driver.close(): This method closes the current active window. If there are multiple windows open in the browser, it will only close the active window.

2. driver.quit(): This method closes all open windows and quits the driver. It completely terminates the WebDriver session and closes all associated browser instances.

It's important to note that if you don't call the driver.quit() method, the WebDriver session will remain open and lead to memory leaks. Therefore, it's recommended to use the driver.quit() method to ensure proper cleanup of resources.

Difference between driver.findElement() and driver.findElements() commands



command is used to locate the first element within the web page that matches the


object passed as parameter. It returns a single WebElement object that can be used to interact with the element found.

On the other hand, the


command also takes a


object as parameter, but it returns a list of all WebElements matching the locator. If no elements are found, the returned list will be empty.

In summary,


returns a single WebElement while


returns a list of WebElements.

Limitations of Selenium WebDriver

Although Selenium WebDriver is a powerful tool for web automation, there are certain cases where it may not be able to automate:

  • Desktop applications: Selenium WebDriver is designed specifically for automating web-based applications and cannot be used for desktop-based applications.
  • CAPTCHA and reCAPTCHA: These security features are meant to prevent automation and cannot be bypassed by Selenium WebDriver.
  • Bar code and QR code readers: Selenium WebDriver cannot interact with bar codes or QR codes as they are not part of the web document object model.
  • Pop-up dialog boxes: Selenium WebDriver cannot automate actions that require interaction with pop-up dialog boxes that are not part of the web document object model.
  • Video and audio playback: Selenium WebDriver cannot interact with elements responsible for video and audio playback on a webpage.

It is important to keep in mind the limitations of Selenium WebDriver while selecting automation tools for your project.

// Code example
public class WebDriverLimitations {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    // Cannot automate desktop applications
    Desktop.getDesktop().open(new File("C:/path/to/application.exe"));
    // Cannot bypass CAPTCHA/reCAPTCHA
    WebElement captchaElement = driver.findElement("captcha"));
    captchaElement.sendKeys("captcha value");
    // Cannot interact with bar code and QR code readers
    // Cannot interact with pop-up dialog boxes outside of web document
    driver.switchTo().window("popup window"); 
    // Cannot interact with video and audio playback elements

Object Repository in Selenium Webdriver

An Object Repository in Selenium Webdriver is a common storage location for all objects that are used in an automation project. It contains a set of properties associated with the objects used in the project. These objects can be found on the web page and can include buttons, links, text boxes, etc. By using an Object Repository, you can easily maintain and reuse objects across multiple test cases without duplicating the code.

Object Repository allows you to store objects with the relevant properties in one place. So that you can avoid storing them in variables or hard coding them in the test scripts. There are two types of Object Repository:

1. Local Object Repository<br>2. Global Object Repository

Selenium WebDriver Interview Questions for Experienced

Question 18: How can you create an object repository in your project using Selenium WebDriver?

To create an object repository in your Selenium WebDriver project, you can follow these steps:

  1. First, create a new class or file where you will store all the object locators for your application. You can name it as "ObjectRepository" or any other relevant name.
  2. Next, define a variable to store the location strategy (i.e., ID, Name, CSS Selector, Xpath, etc.) of each object and another variable to store its locator value.
  3. For each element on your application, create a new instance of the class and store its locator value in the corresponding variable.
  4. Now, whenever you need to interact with any element on your application, you can simply reference it by using its corresponding locator variables from the object repository.

Using an object repository in your Selenium WebDriver project will not only make your code more organized and maintainable but also saves a lot of time and effort in case of any changes to the application.

Types of Waits Supported by WebDriver

WebDriver supports three types of waits:

1. Implicit Waits: Implicit waits set a global timeout for WebElements to appear on the page before throwing a NoSuchElementException. This is applicable for all WebElements on the page.

2. Explicit Waits: Explicit waits halt the execution until a certain expected condition is met. This provides more control over waiting for a specific element to appear/disappear, and can also be used for asynchronous page loads.

3. Fluent Waits: Fluent waits are similar to explicit waits, but allow you to define more granular conditions for waiting, such as polling interval and timeout duration.

Using a combination of these wait types can help ensure that your automated tests are more reliable and resilient to unexpected delays in page loading.

Types of Navigation Commands

In terms of web browsers and web development, there are several types of navigation commands that can be used:

    <li>Backward navigation: This allows the user to go back to the previous page.</li>
    <li>Forward navigation: This allows the user to go forward to the next page after going back.</li>
    <li>Refresh: This allows the user to reload the current page.</li>
    <li>Home: This allows the user to return to the home page or set a specific page as the home page.</li>
    <li>Bookmark: This allows the user to save a webpage for later reference and access it quickly.</li>
    <li>Search: This allows the user to search for content on the current website or on the internet using a search engine.</li>
    <li>Link navigation: This allows the user to navigate through links within a webpage.</li>

Working of Selenium WebDriver with Browser

Selenium WebDriver interacts with the browser using the browser's native support for automation. The WebDriver acts as a bridge between the test script and the browser under test.

Firstly, the WebDriver initiates a new session in the browser by launching a new instance of it. It then transfers the HTTP requests from the test script to the browser server using the JSON wire protocol.

The browser server accepts the requests, executes them, and returns the response back to the WebDriver. Once the task is completed, the WebDriver ends the session, and the browser instance is closed.

// Sample code for opening a browser window using Selenium WebDriver in Python

from selenium import webdriver
# Set the path of web driver executable file
driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path="path/to/chromedriver.exe")

# Open the specified URL in the browser

Components of Selenium Suite

Selenium Suite consists of several components that facilitate automation testing. These components are:

Selenium IDE:

It is an integrated development environment used for creating and executing Selenium scripts.

Selenium WebDriver:

It is a browser automation tool that provides a programming interface for WebDriver-compatible language like Java, Python or C# to automate browser actions.

Selenium Grid:

It is a tool used for parallel test execution on multiple browsers and platforms simultaneously.

Selenium RC:

It is an older version of Selenium WebDriver that has now been deprecated. It used to allow the execution of tests on remote machines using a server.

Selenium Plugins:

There are several plugins available for Selenium that can be used to extend its functionality and integrate it with other tools.

Selenium WebDriver Listeners

Selenium WebDriver Listeners are event handlers that can be implemented in Selenium WebDriver to listen to various events triggered by the WebDriver. These events include, but are not limited to, element clicking, page navigation, and element selection. With WebDriver Listeners, you can monitor these events and handle them according to your needs. This provides a way to customize the behavior of your WebDriver tests, making them more efficient and effective.

Implementation of WebDriver Listeners

WebDriver Listeners in Selenium can be implemented by creating a Java class that implements the WebDriverEventListener interface.

Here is an example code snippet that demonstrates the implementation of WebDriver Listeners:

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverEventListener;
public class MyListener implements WebDriverEventListener {
    public void beforeNavigateTo(String url, WebDriver driver) {
        System.out.println("Before navigating to: '" + url + "'");
    public void afterNavigateTo(String url, WebDriver driver) {
        System.out.println("Navigated to:'" + url + "'");
    // Similarly, other methods can be implemented like beforeClickOn, afterClickOn, beforeFindBy, afterFindBy, etc.

Once the listener class is implemented, it can be registered with the WebDriver instance by creating an instance of the listener class and passing it to the register() method of the EventFiringWebDriver class.

EventFiringWebDriver eventDriver = new EventFiringWebDriver(driver);
MyListener myListener = new MyListener();

Now, the WebDriver listener will be triggered whenever any WebDriver action is performed. The listener methods will be executed before and after the WebDriver actions like navigating to a URL, clicking on an element, finding an element, etc.

Drawbacks of using Selenium for Testing

Although Selenium is a popular tool for automation testing, it also has a few drawbacks that users should be aware of:

  • Selenium doesn't have built-in support for handling CAPTCHA, barcode, and QR code.
  • It requires programming knowledge to write test scripts, which can be a challenge for non-technical team members.
  • Selenium doesn't provide robust reporting features, which can make it difficult to track defects and issues.
  • It doesn't support desktop applications and only works on web-based applications.
  • Selenium tests are browser-specific, requiring tests to be run multiple times for each browser.
  • Debugging can be difficult in Selenium, as it doesn't provide good error messages when a test fails.
// Example code:
System.setProperty("", "path/to/chromedriver");
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

Selenium WebDriver: Handling AJAX Calls

When a webpage is loaded, AJAX requests might be made to the server for dynamic content that needs to be displayed on the page. To handle these AJAX calls while using Selenium WebDriver, we can use the `WebDriverWait` class in combination with the `ExpectedCondition` interface.

Here's an example of how this can be done:

// create a WebDriver instance
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

// navigate to the webpage that contains the AJAX call

// create an instance of WebDriverWait with a timeout of 10 seconds
WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, 10);

// define an ExpectedCondition for the AJAX call to complete
ExpectedCondition<Boolean> ajaxLoad = new ExpectedCondition<Boolean>() {
    public Boolean apply(WebDriver driver) {
        return ((JavascriptExecutor)driver).executeScript("return == 0").equals(true);

// wait for the AJAX call to complete

In this code, we create a `WebDriver` instance and navigate to the webpage that contains the AJAX call. We then create an instance of `WebDriverWait` with a timeout of 10 seconds.

Next, we define an `ExpectedCondition` that checks for the completion of the AJAX call. In this example, we're using the jQuery `active` property to determine whether the AJAX call has completed. If the `active` property is 0, then we know that the AJAX call has completed.

Finally, we use the `until` method of `WebDriverWait` to wait for the AJAX call to complete. Once the AJAX call has completed, the method will return and we can proceed with interacting with the webpage.

By using this approach, we can ensure that our Selenium WebDriver scripts are able to handle dynamic content that is loaded via AJAX calls on a webpage.

Which WebDriver Implementation Promises to be the Fastest?

When it comes to WebDriver implementations, the one that promises to be the fastest is the


implementation. This is because ChromeDriver is optimized for use with Google Chrome browser, which is known for being one of the fastest browsers available. However, the performance can also depend on other factors such as the computer's hardware and the website being tested. It's a good idea to try multiple WebDriver implementations to determine which one delivers the best performance for your specific use case.

What is the minimum number of parameters for Selenium commands?

Selenium commands have a minimum of one parameter, which is the locator strategy used to identify the element on the webpage. Some commands may have additional parameters, such as text to input or a timeout value, but the locator strategy is always a required parameter.

Explanation of Establishing a WebDriver Reference Variable

The reason for establishing a WebDriver reference variable called 'driver' is to create an instance of a web driver, which allows the automation script to interact with a web browser. By having a WebDriver reference variable, we can perform various operations such as navigating to a website, locating elements, filling out forms, clicking buttons, and extracting data from the web page. The WebDriver reference variable connects the script to the web browser, enabling it to carry out all the necessary tasks in a web page.

Types of Selenium WebDriver Exceptions encountered

In my experience with Selenium WebDriver, I have encountered various exceptions, some of which include:

1. NoSuchElementException - This exception is thrown when the element specified is not found in the DOM. 2. TimeoutException - This exception is thrown when the specified timeout for waiting for an element to be located or displayed elapses. 3. StaleElementReferenceException - This exception is thrown when the element is no longer present in the DOM or has become stale. 4. ElementNotVisibleException - This exception is thrown when the element is present in the DOM, but it is not visible. 5. InvalidElementStateException - This exception is thrown when the state of the element is invalid, such as when trying to interact with a disabled element. 6. WebDriverException - This exception is a catch-all for all exceptions thrown by WebDriver. 7. UnexpectedAlertPresentException - This exception is thrown when an unexpected alert is present on the page.

These exceptions can be handled using try-catch blocks to provide appropriate error messages and take corrective action where necessary.

Best Practices for Dealing with StaleElementReferenceException:

When working with web elements in Selenium, the StaleElementReferenceException is a common issue that can occur. This exception is usually caused when an element is no longer attached to the DOM, or when the page is refreshed before interacting with the element.

Some best practices for dealing with StaleElementReferenceException are:

1. Always wait for the element to be visible and enabled before interacting with it. 2. Use explicit waits instead of implicit waits. 3. Avoid refreshing the page during test execution if possible. 4. Use the Page Object Model to separate the code that interacts with the web page from the test code. 5. Use try-catch blocks to handle the exception gracefully.

Here is an example of how to handle StaleElementReferenceException using a try-catch block:

WebElement element = driver.findElement("elementId"));
try {;
} catch (StaleElementReferenceException e) {
  element = driver.findElement("elementId"));;

In this example, the code tries to click on an element with the ID "elementId". If a StaleElementReferenceException is thrown, the catch block reinitializes the element and then clicks on it again.

By following these best practices, you can minimize the occurrence of StaleElementReferenceException in your Selenium code.

Using Implicit and Explicit Waits together in Selenium Script

When using both Implicit and Explicit Waits in a Selenium script, it can result in unnecessarily long wait times or errors. It is recommended to choose one type of wait method.

Using Implicit Wait alone means the driver will automatically wait for a certain amount of time before throwing a NoSuchElementException if the element is not found. This can be set once at the beginning of the script using the `driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait()` method.

On the other hand, Explicit Wait is a more efficient method where the script waits for a certain condition to be met before proceeding. This type of wait can be set on a specific element using `WebDriverWait(driver, timeout).until(expected_conditions)` method.

Overall, using only Explicit Wait is recommended as it allows for more precise control and efficient execution of the script.H3 In a Selenium Script: What happens when using both Thread.sleep() and WebDriver Waits? /H3

Using both Thread.sleep() and WebDriver Waits in a Selenium script can result in unnecessary waiting times and delays, which can cause the script to run slower than intended.

Thread.sleep() is a static wait method that pauses the thread for a set amount of time, which can cause the script to wait for longer than necessary, even if the page has already loaded.

On the other hand, WebDriver Waits are intelligent waits that dynamically wait for an element to appear on the page before continuing with the script. This ensures that the script waits only for as long as necessary, and continues executing once the element is available.

It is recommended to use WebDriver Waits instead of Thread.sleep() to make the most efficient use of the automation script. Using Thread.sleep() should be avoided unless there is a specific requirement to pause the script for a set amount of time.

How to Take a Screenshot in Selenium WebDriver?

To take a screenshot in Selenium WebDriver using Java, you should perform the following steps:

1. Import the necessary libraries:

import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;
import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;

2. Get the WebDriver instance and cast it to TakesScreenshot interface:

WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
TakesScreenshot ts = (TakesScreenshot) driver;

3. Call the getScreenshotAs() method of TakesScreenshot interface and store it in a File object:

File source = ts.getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);

4. Define the path where you want to store the screenshot:

String dest = "C:\\Users\\Username\\eclipse-workspace\\ProjectName\\screenshots\\screenshot.png";

5. Copy the screenshot file from the source to the destination path using FileUtils.copyFile() method:

FileUtils.copyFile(source, new File(dest));

6. Finally, close the WebDriver instance:


Note: Don't forget to add the necessary Exceptions in try-catch blocks.

Using Selenium Webdriver to Enter Text into a Text Box

To enter text into a text box using Selenium WebDriver in the US, follow these steps:

1. Import the necessary libraries
2. Set up the driver and navigate to the desired webpage
3. Locate the text box element using the appropriate selector
4. Clear the text box (optional)
5. Enter the desired text into the text box using the .send_keys() method
6. Submit the text, if necessary, using the .submit() method or clicking on the submit button

Example code:

from selenium import webdriver

# Set up driver and navigate to webpage
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Locate and clear text box
text_box = driver.find_element_by_id("text_box_id")

# Enter text into text box and submit
text_box.send_keys("Hello, world!")

Make sure to use the appropriate selector to locate the text box element. The example code above uses the text box's ID.

Alternative to SendKeys() function for typing text into a textbox

In order to type text into a textbox without using the SendKeys() function, you can use the following code:

input_box = driver.find_element_by_xpath("xpath_of_the_textbox")

This code finds the textbox using its Xpath, clears any existing text inside it, and then uses the send_keys() function to enter the desired text into the textbox.

Clearing text in a text box using Selenium WebDriver

You can use the `clear()` method to clear the text from a text box using Selenium WebDriver. First, you need to locate the text box element using a proper selector and then use the `clear()` method to remove the existing text.

Here's an example code snippet in Python:

from selenium import webdriver

# Initialize the driver
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Navigate to the webpage

# Locate the text box element
text_box = driver.find_element_by_id("textbox-id")

# Clear the text

# Close the driver

In this example, we first initialize the WebDriver, navigate to a webpage, locate the text box element using its ID, clear the existing text from it using the `clear()` method, and finally close the WebDriver.

Best Approach for Retrieving Text Content from a Web Element

One of the best ways to acquire the textual content of a web element is by using the getText() method. This can be done in Selenium WebDriver using the appropriate syntax for the language being used. By using the getText() method, the text content of a given web element can be directly extracted and stored in a variable for further processing.

// Java Example:
WebElement element = driver.findElement("exampleId"));
String elementTextContent = element.getText();
System.out.println("Element text content is: " + elementTextContent);

This code retrieves the text content from a web element with an ID of "exampleId" and assigns it to the variable "elementTextContent". This approach can be used with other types of locators besides ID, using the appropriate method (e.g. findElement(By.xpath()) in Java).

Retrieving the Value of an Attribute in Selenium WebDriver

To retrieve the value of an attribute using Selenium WebDriver in Python, you can use the `get_attribute()` method. This method takes the name of the attribute as an argument and returns the corresponding value.

Here's an example:

# Import the necessary module
from selenium import webdriver
# Create a new instance of the Firefox driver
driver = webdriver.Firefox()
# Navigate to the example page
# Find an element on the page
element = driver.find_element_by_id("example")
# Get the value of the element's "attribute_name" attribute
attribute_value = element.get_attribute("attribute_name")
# Print the attribute value
# Close the browser

In this example, we first import the `webdriver` module from Selenium. Then, we create a new instance of the Firefox driver and navigate to the example page.

Next, we find an element on the page using the `find_element_by_id()` method and assign it to the `element` variable. Finally, we retrieve the value of the element's "attribute_name" attribute using the `get_attribute()` method and print it to the console.

Using Selenium Webdriver to Click on a Hyperlink

To click on a hyperlink using Selenium WebDriver in Python, you can follow these steps:

from selenium import webdriver
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# initialize the Chrome browser


# navigate to the website

link = driver.find_element_by_link_text("Link Text")

# identify the hyperlink by its link text

# click on the link

Make sure to replace "" with the actual URL of the website you want to navigate to and replace "Link Text" with the actual link text of the hyperlink you want to click on.

Additionally, make sure to properly install and set up Selenium WebDriver in your Python environment.

Submitting a Form using Selenium WebDriver:

To submit a form using Selenium WebDriver in Python, follow these steps:

1. Initialize the WebDriver instance for the browser that you want to automate. 2. Use the `get()` method to navigate to the URL of the webpage containing the form that needs to be submitted. 3. Locate the form on the webpage using any of the available locators such as name, ID, class name, etc. 4. Use the `.submit()` method on the form element to submit the form.

Here's a sample code snippet that demonstrates how to submit a form using Selenium WebDriver in Python:

from selenium import webdriver

# Initialize the WebDriver instance for Chrome browser
driver = webdriver.Chrome("path_to_chrome_driver")

# Navigate to the webpage containing the form

# Locate the form using its ID
form = driver.find_element_by_id("example-form")

# Submit the form

# Close the browser window

Make sure to replace the "path_to_chrome_driver" with the actual path to the downloaded ChromeDriver executable file on your local machine.

Pressing Enter Key on a Text Box in Selenium WebDriver

To press the Enter key using Selenium WebDriver in a text box, you can use the `Keys.ENTER` method.

Here's an example code snippet to demonstrate how to do it:

from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
from import By
from import WebDriverWait
from import expected_conditions as EC 

# replace 'text_box' with the ID or name attribute of your text box
text_box = driver.find_element(By.ID, 'text_box')

# enter text into the text box
text_box.send_keys('your text')

# press Enter key

In the above code, we imported the necessary modules and then located the text box element using its ID. We then added text to the text box using the `send_keys` method and pressed the Enter key using `Keys.ENTER`.

You can also use the `Keys.RETURN` method instead of `Keys.ENTER` to achieve the same result.

How to Use WebDriver to Hover Over a Web Element?

To simulate a mouse hover using Selenium WebDriver in Python, we can use the ActionChains class from the selenium.webdriver.common.action_chains module. Here's an example:

from selenium import webdriver  
from selenium.webdriver.common.action_chains import ActionChains  
driver = webdriver.Chrome()  
element = driver.find_element_by_id("element-id")  
# create an ActionChain object
actions = ActionChains(driver)  
# hover over the element

In the above example, we first import the webdriver module and the ActionChains class from the selenium.webdriver.common.action_chains module. Next, we create a new Chrome driver object and navigate to a sample website. We locate the web element using its ID attribute with the find_element_by_id() method. Then, we create an ActionChains object 'actions' and use its move_to_element() method to move the mouse pointer to the element we just located. Finally, we call the perform() method of the actions object to execute the hover operation.

How Selenium WebDriver deals with hidden elements?

When a web element is hidden, it is not accessible to the user. Similarly, Selenium WebDriver follows the same rules as a user would. WebDriver cannot interact with hidden web elements, except in some specific cases. However, WebDriver can still locate a hidden web element and verify its attributes, properties, and values.

If a web element is hidden but has functionality that needs to be tested, a workaround is to make the web element visible using JavaScript code. Then, the WebDriver can interact with the element as usual. It is important to note that making elements visible via JavaScript may not accurately simulate a user's experience, so this workaround should be used with caution.

In summary, Selenium WebDriver cannot interact with hidden web elements directly. However, with the use of JavaScript code to make the element visible, WebDriver can still test its functionality and attributes.

Using Recovery Scenarios in Selenium WebDriver

In Selenium WebDriver, we can use recovery scenarios to handle unexpected errors and exceptions that may occur during test execution. This can help to make our tests more robust and reliable.

To use a recovery scenario, we need to follow these steps:

1. Define the recovery scenario: We need to specify the conditions or events that should trigger the recovery scenario and the actions that should be taken to recover from the error.

2. Implement the recovery scenario: We need to write the code to handle the error and recover from it. This code should be included in a try-catch block.

3. Associate the recovery scenario with the test: We need to add the recovery scenario to the test script so that it is triggered when the specified conditions are met.

Here is an example of how we can use a recovery scenario in Selenium WebDriver:

// Define the recovery scenario
EventFiringWebDriver eventDriver = new EventFiringWebDriver(driver);
eventDriver.register(new MyWebDriverEventListener());

// Implement the recovery scenario
try {
    // Perform the actions that may cause an error
    WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//button[@id='submit']"));;
} catch (NoSuchElementException e) {
    // Handle the error and recover from it
    System.out.println("Error: Element not found");
    eventDriver.executeScript("window.scrollTo(0, document.body.scrollHeight)");
    WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//button[@id='submit']"));;

// Associate the recovery scenario with the test
driver = eventDriver;

In this example, we have defined a recovery scenario that uses an event listener to handle errors. We then implement the recovery scenario using a try-catch block, and associate it with the test by using the `EventFiringWebDriver` class. This allows us to automatically trigger the recovery scenario whenever the specified conditions are met, without having to manually handle each error.

Technical Interview Guides

Here are guides for technical interviews, categorized from introductory to advanced levels.

View All

Best MCQ

As part of their written examination, numerous tech companies necessitate candidates to complete multiple-choice questions (MCQs) assessing their technical aptitude.

View MCQ's
Made with love
This website uses cookies to make IQCode work for you. By using this site, you agree to our cookie policy

Welcome Back!

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign in
Recover lost password
Or log in with

Create a Free Account

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign up
Or sign up with
By signing up, you agree to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. You also agree to receive product-related marketing emails from IQCode, which you can unsubscribe from at any time.