Best Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) on the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used in the software industry to produce and design high-quality software. It follows certain stages of designing, developing, and testing the software before launching it. There are different types of SDLC models available, some popular ones include:

- Waterfall Model - Iterative Model - Spiral Model - Big Bang Model - V-Model - Agile Model - RAD Model

Software Prototyping

Software prototyping is the process in which developers create a model of the actual software to gain a deeper understanding of the user's requirements. This model helps in getting feedback from the customer. The process of software prototyping includes initial requirements identification, prototype development, review, and revision. There are two types of prototyping:

- Rapid Prototyping/Throwaway: In this type, a prototype is built with minimal effort to gather requirements from the user. After the necessary requirements are gathered, the prototype is discarded and the actual software development begins. - Evolutionary Prototyping: The prototype serves as the basis on which the actual system can be built.

Software Testing

Testing is an essential part of software development. Different types of testing are performed at various stages of software development. White box testing involves directly examining the code, Black-box testing does not involve looking at the code, and Grey-box testing is a mixture of both. Some widely used testing types include:

- Unit Testing: Testing a single unit of the software. - Integration Testing: Testing of separate units that are then integrated, and tested again. - Regression Testing: Testing the software to check if the addition of a new module causes any failure. - System Testing: Testing the complete software to ensure that it is working as a system. - Stress Testing: Testing the software under unfavorable conditions.


Multiple Choice Questions related to Software Development Life Cycle.

Identifying Software Testing Life Cycle Phases

In software development, testing is an integral part of the software development life cycle (SDLC). One of the key components of the SDLC is the software testing life cycle (STLC), which includes the following phases:

  • Requirement analysis
  • Test planning
  • Test case design
  • Test environment setup
  • Test execution
  • Defect tracking
  • Reporting and closure
  • Maintenance

Among these phases, test case design, test execution, defect tracking, and maintenance fall under the STLC.

Correcting a STLC Phase

In the STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle), coding is not considered a phase. The correct phases of STLC are:

- Requirement analysis - Test planning - Test execution - Test closure

Test closure is the final phase of STLC where all testing activities are completed and all documents are prepared.

Understanding the RAD Software Process

RAD stands for Rapid Application Development, which is a software development process that focuses on speedy prototyping and quick iterations. The goal of RAD is to deliver applications quickly while also improving efficiency and reducing costs. The RAD process typically involves iterative development, prototyping, and close collaboration between developers and users.

Identifying the Simplest Model of SDLC

Out of all the models of SDLC, the Spiral model is considered the simplest.

The other models of SDLC include:

  • Agile
  • RAD
  • Waterfall

Identifying the Most Important Feature of Spiral Model

Out of all the features of the Spiral Model, the most crucial one is identified as risk management.

// Example implementation of Spiral Model with emphasis on risk management
class SpiralModel {
  private int riskLevel;
  private boolean isPrototypeApproved;
  public void conductRiskAnalysis() {
    // code to conduct risk analysis
    // based on identified risks adjust the risk level
    // if risk level > threshold, halt development
  public void buildPrototype() {
    // code to build prototype
    // if prototype not approved, go back to risk analysis
  public void testAndVerify() {
    // code to test and verify prototype
    // if prototype not approved, go back to risk analysis
  public void implementAndDeploy() {
    // code to implement and deploy the finalized product

As you can see, the Spiral Model is implemented through a series of steps, including risk analysis, building prototypes, testing and verifying, and implementing and deploying the final product. By constantly analyzing and managing potential risks during each of these steps, the development process becomes more efficient and effective.

SDLC: Understanding the First Step

SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle, which is a process that outlines the steps involved in software development. The first step of SDLC is Preliminary Investigation and Analysis. This step involves gathering information, identifying problems, determining project goals, and analyzing the feasibility of the project. Once this step is completed, the next steps can be initiated, which include designing, coding, testing, and maintenance.

Incorrect Black Box Technique

The incorrect black box technique out of the given options is:

Linear Code Sequence and Jump (LCSAJ)

It is important to note that LCSAJ is not a black box testing technique. The other options, syntax testing and state transition testing, are valid black box techniques.

Note: No code provided as answer does not require any code.

Understanding Software Development - Defects

In software development, a defect is a variance from the product specifications. It is an error in the software that causes it to behave in an unintended or unexpected way. Defects are usually caught during testing, but they can occur at any stage of the development process. It is important to identify and fix defects as soon as possible to ensure that the product functions as intended. This helps to improve the quality of the software, increase customer satisfaction, and reduce maintenance costs.

Identifying the Type of Integration Testing that Uses Stubs

To identify the type of integration testing that uses stubs, we need to understand the different types of integration testing:

  • Bottom-up testing
  • Top-down testing
  • System testing

The type of integration testing that uses stubs is Bottom-up testing.

In Bottom-up testing, the lower level modules are tested first, and it is done by using stubs for the higher level modules. These stubs act like placeholders for the higher level modules until they are integrated with the system.

Bottom-up testing helps in finding issues early in the development process, as lower level modules are tested before the higher level modules are implemented.

Therefore, the correct answer is A) Bottom-up testing.

public class BottomUpTesting {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      // test the lower level modules for functionality 
      // by using stubs for the higher level modules

Identifying Types of Requirements

It is important to distinguish between functional and non-functional requirements when specifying the needs for a software system.

Functional requirements define what a software system should do, whereas non-functional requirements describe how it should do it. Non-functional requirements can be further categorized into several types, including:

  • Robustness
  • Portability
  • Maintainability

Functional requirements specify the desired outcome or behavior of a software application, while non-functional requirements specify the qualities or characteristics of the software system.

Therefore, the correct answer to this question is D) All of the above are non-functional requirements.

Understanding SDLC

SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle, which is a process used by software development teams to design, develop, test, and deploy high-quality software. It is a structured and methodical approach that involves various phases, including planning, analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance.

Code: N/A

Fault-Based Testing Technique

The fault-based testing technique refers to a method of testing where the specific aim is to find defects or faults in a system under test. In this method, the tests are designed to identify any weaknesses in the software system or application. There are several techniques that can be used for fault-based testing.

One of these techniques is mutation testing. Mutation testing is a fault-based technique where artificial faults or mutations are introduced to the code. The tests are then run on the mutated code to determine if the tests are able to identify the faults.

Types of Code Review

There are two types of code review: code walkthrough and code inspection.

// Example of code review process
function codeReview(process) {
  const type = process.type;
  if (type === 'walkthrough' || type === 'inspection') {
    console.log('This is a valid type of code review.');
  } else {
    console.log('Invalid type of code review.');

What is ITG and its full form?

ITG stands for Independent Test Group. Therefore, the correct answer is A) Independent Test Group.

//Example usage of ITG in a sentence:
//The software development team collaborated with the ITG to ensure quality assurance and smooth deployment of their application.

const itg = "Independent Test Group";
console.log(`The full form of ITG is ${itg}.`);

Understanding the meaning of FAST

FAST stands for Facilitated Application Specification Technique.

// No code to optimize as this section only explains the meaning of FAST

Phases of the RAD Software Model

The Rapid Application Development (RAD) model consists of a total of five phases. These phases are as follows:

- Business modeling - Data modeling - Process modeling - Application generation - Testing and turnover

Each phase has a specific objective and set of activities that need to be completed before moving on to the next phase. The RAD model is an iterative and incremental approach to software development that emphasizes rapid prototyping and active user involvement throughout the development process.

Understanding the Components of Software

Software typically consists of:

Programs + documentation + operating procedures

The programs are the set of instructions that tell the computer what to do. The documentation provides information about the programs, such as how to use them and what features they offer. The operating procedures are the steps that need to be followed to ensure the programs are installed and used correctly.

Hardware manuals provide information about the physical components of a computer system, but they do not make up the software.

Instructions alone would not be considered software, as they lack the actual programs needed to perform a task.

Identifying the Stage for Designing Test Cases

In the Software Testing Life Cycle, designing test cases is an important stage. Test cases are designed to ensure the software being developed meets the requirements and specifications, and functions as intended. That being said, test cases are designed during the Test Specification stage.

Therefore, the correct answer is C) Test Specification.

Optimal Timing for Regression Testing

Regression testing should be done both after the software has been modified and when the environment has been modified. Therefore, answer D is the correct choice.

The ideal frequency for regression testing may vary depending on the project requirements. However, it should be done as frequently as possible.

It is important to run regression tests whenever significant changes have been made to the software or the testing environment. This helps to ensure that the changes have not introduced new bugs or caused existing functionality to break.

When Should White-Box Testing Begin?

White-box testing should begin after programming has been completed.


// Begin white-box testing after programming is completed
function startWhiteBoxTesting() {
  // implementation of white-box testing

Reasons Why Waterfall Model is Not Suitable

- Small projects
- Complex projects
- Maintenance Projects

Waterfall model is not suitable for accommodating changes in the project requirements. Once a stage is completed, the process cannot be reversed, and it is challenging to implement changes. This model is based on a sequential process which means you must complete one stage before moving to the next. Therefore, if a change is made in one stage, it can impact the entire project and cause delays. Hence, for accommodating changeable requirements, agile methodology may be more suitable.

Unit Testing: Who is Responsible?

In software development, unit testing is done by developers. It is a type of testing where individual units or components of a software application are tested to check if they are working correctly.

Users or customers are not responsible for unit testing because they may not have the knowledge or expertise to test the individual components. This task is solely the responsibility of the developers.

Unit testing is an important part of the software development process as it ensures that the individual units are working correctly before they are integrated into the overall application. This helps to prevent errors and issues from occurring later on.

Definition of Testing

Testing is the process of evaluating and verifying the functionality of a software product or system by performing various test cases to identify any errors, bugs, or defects in the deliverables.

The purpose of testing is to ensure that the software meets the requirements and specifications outlined by the stakeholders, and to improve the overall quality and reliability of the system.

Testing is an integral part of all software development projects, and is typically performed throughout the software development life cycle (SDLC).

Correcting Errors in a Multiple Choice Question

Which of the following process models is NOT related to the Evolutionary Process Model?

  • Concurrent Development Model
  • WINWIN Spiral Model
  • Incremental Model
  • All of the above

Answer: Option D

Explanation: The Evolutionary Process Model is a model designed for rapid development and modification as per user requirements. Hence, this model is related to the incremental, concurrent development, and WINWIN spiral models. Therefore, the correct answer is option D which states that all of the above process models are not related to the Evolutionary Process Model.



Black Box Testing Terminology

In software testing, when testers test the functionalities of a software application without having any knowledge about the internal workings of the system, it is called black box testing. Here are different terms related to black box testing:

Behavioral testing

is another name for black box testing, which involves testing the external functionalities of the application, considering the system as a black box.

Data flow testing

is a technique to analyze whether the data input and output in the application are correct, in different scenarios.

Graph-based testing

is a technique that represents the functionalities as graphs and determines the testing scenarios through different paths.

Loop testing

is a technique to identify bugs in the system by executing a code block multiple times.

In summary, black box testing is known as behavioral testing, as it tests the behaviors of an application without considering the internal workings of the system.

Identification of the V-Model

The V-model is a software development model that is also known as the Verification and Validation (V&V) model. It is one of the most widely used software development models in the industry. The V-model is a type of waterfall model that emphasizes the importance of early and rigorous testing and validation of the software throughout the software development life cycle.

Out of the given options, the correct answer is B) V-model.

Identifying Models Dependent on User Participation

Out of the four models mentioned, there are two models that heavily rely on user participation for the desired output: RAD and prototyping. If user participation is lacking, the results may not meet expectations.

On the other hand, the waterfall and spiral models are less dependent on user involvement for success.

Therefore, the correct answer is option A: RAD and prototyping.

# Code example
if selected_model == 'RAD' or selected_model == 'Prototyping':
  print("User participation is necessary for desired output")
  print("User participation has less impact on output")

Notable Fact about Unit Testing

Out of the given options, option B is incorrect as unit testing does not decrease the speed of development. Instead, it is a highly recommended practice that can result in faster development and save time in the long run.

Unit testing is performed by the development team to check if individual units of the source code are ready for use. It is not the job of testers to conduct unit testing.

It is vital to understand that unit testing might not catch every error in the program, but it still helps in detecting many defects early in the development cycle, which is beneficial in the long run.

Optimal LOC for Build and Fix Model for Programming Exercises

For programming exercises, the Build and Fix model is suitable for 100-200 lines of code (LOC).

The Build and Fix model is a simple and straightforward model in which the software is developed by repeatedly fixing and testing until the software satisfies the requirements.

This model is not suitable for large-scale projects, as it lacks a structured approach and can lead to code complexity and maintenance issues. However, for small programming exercises, it can be an effective way to quickly develop and test simple software.

//Example of Build and Fix Model approach for small code exercise
#include <stdio.h>
int main(){
    int a = 5;
    int b = 10;
    int result;
    result = a + b;
    printf("The result is: %d", result);
    return 0;

In this simple example, the Build and Fix model can work well for quickly developing and testing the code to add two numbers. However, for larger projects, a more structured and efficient model, such as Agile or Waterfall, should be used.

When to Start White-Box Testing?

White-box testing should start after the programming stage is complete. At this point, the tester can check the code for functional errors and identify problems related to the program's internal structure. This type of testing can effectively locate issues that may cause performance problems or affect the program's security. Therefore, it is crucial to start white-box testing after the code has been written and compiled.


# This code snippet illustrates an example of white-box testing
# The program checks if a given number is even or not using an "if" statement
def is_even(num):
  if num%2==0:
    return True
    return False
# The white-box test uses various test cases, including negative and positive ones, to ensure the function works correctly

The above code shows a simple example of white-box testing to check if a given number is even or odd. The tester uses various test cases to ensure that the function works as expected, validating the code structure and calculating test coverage.

Two Dimensions of the Spiral Model

The Spiral Model has two dimensions: Radial and Angular.

    Radial dimension represents the distance covered in each cycle while the angular dimension represents the degree covered in each cycle. Both of these dimensions are used to provide a framework for planning and execution of software development projects.

Software Processes in Software Engineering

In software engineering, all the processes are significant, including software verification, software testing and validation, software designing, and software evolution. However, software verification is not recommended for software processes since it is mainly used for implementing and testing. The recommended processes are software testing and validation, software designing, and software evolution, which help to ensure the quality, functionality, and maintainability of the software product.

Incorrect Type of Prototyping Model

In the world of software development, we use prototyping models to create a visual representation of the final product before its actual development. This helps in identifying potential design flaws and improving the product. There are various types of prototyping models, and one of them is Diagonal prototype, but it is an incorrect type of prototyping model.

The correct types of prototyping models are:

  • Vertical prototype
  • Horizontal prototype
  • Domain prototype

It is essential to choose the appropriate prototyping model that best suits the project's requirements and goals.

Advantages of the Iterative Model

The Iterative model has several advantages, including:

- Simpler to manage
- Divided workload
- Early revenue generation

Therefore, the correct answer is

D) All of the above


Correctness Measure

The most common measure for correctness is Defects per KLOC.

Classification of White-Box Testing

White-box testing can be classified as structural testing. It involves testing the internal structure of the code and checking if all the statements, loops, and conditions have been tested. This approach requires a tester to have an understanding of the code and programming logic.

// Example of white-box testing
if (num1 + num2 == 5) {
   print("Sum is equal to 5");
} else {
   print("Sum is not equal to 5");

In the code above, a white-box tester could write test cases to verify that both branches of the "if-else" statement are executed and that the expected output is produced, depending on the values of num1 and num2.

Frequency of performing 'Risk Analysis' in Spiral Model

In the Spiral Model, 'Risk Analysis' is an important stage to identify and mitigate potential risks. It is performed in every loop of the model. This ensures that new risks that might have emerged during the development of the product can be addressed as soon as possible. Therefore, the correct option is (C) - 'Every loop.'

Understanding SRS Documents

In software development, the SRS document, also known as black box specification, is a detailed description of a software system's functional and non-functional requirements. The document outlines what the software should do, how it should behave, and how it should interact with users and other systems. It is an essential part of the software development process, as it serves as a blueprint that guides developers and stakeholders throughout the development cycle.

Environment for Alpha Testing

According to industry standards, alpha testing is conducted at the developer's end. This is because the purpose of alpha testing is to identify and fix issues in the software before it is released to external users. The testing is carried out in a controlled environment, and the developers have access to the source code to make any necessary changes. Therefore, option B is the correct answer - Alpha testing is always performed from the developer's end.

What is Cyclomatic Complexity?

Cyclomatic Complexity is a measure of the complexity of a computer program based on the control flow of the program. It measures the number of independent paths through the program that can each be executed at runtime. The higher the Cyclomatic Complexity, the more complex the program is and the more difficult it may be to test and maintain. It is commonly used in white box testing to evaluate the quality and efficiency of test cases.

Answer: B) White box testing

Testing to Perform on First Build of Software

It is not possible to perform any of the tests mentioned above, including sanity testing, regression testing, and retesting, on the first build of the software. This is because these tests require a stable and developed software product that has undergone at least one round of testing. Therefore, before performing any of these tests, the first build of the software must be refined and tested to ensure that the tests are successfully executed.

// No tests can be performed on first build

Types of Incremental Testing Approaches

There are three types of incremental testing approach:

  1. Top-down approach
  2. Bottom-up approach
  3. Functional incremental approach

The Big-bang approach is not a type of incremental testing approach.

Objective of Integration Testing

Integration testing is performed to check the interactions between different modules of the software system. The main objective of integration testing is to identify and resolve interface errors before the entire system is deployed.

Hence, the correct answer is option A, which states that the key objective of integration testing is to resolve interface errors.

# Integration Testing Example Code

def integrate_module1_and_module2(module1, module2):
    This function integrates module1 and module2 by checking their interactions.
    It returns True if the integration is successful.
    # Check module1 and module2 interfaces
    if module1.output != module2.input:
        # Resolve errors if interfaces mismatch
        module1.output = module2.input
    # Integrate module1 and module2
    result = module1.process() + module2.process()

    return True

Agile Software Development

Agile software development is a methodology that emphasizes on iterative and incremental development and delivery of software products. It involves continuous collaboration with customers and cross-functional teams. The following options are applicable to agile software development:

  • Producing only essential work products
  • Recent application development

The following option is not applicable:

  • Abolishing project planning and testing

Testing and planning are crucial steps in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) that cannot be abolished.


What is not included in SRS?

Design solutions are not included in SRS. The correct option among the given choices is D.

// No code to optimize or format

Correct Defect Rate for Six Sigma

In Six Sigma, the correct defect rate is 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO), which is equivalent to 3.4 million defects per million lines of code.

Agile Development Testing

In Agile development, testing is not treated as a separate phase. Instead, it is integrated with the development process. Testing is conducted in parallel with coding so that defects can be detected early and fixed immediately. This approach ensures that the product is continuously tested and improved throughout the development lifecycle.

Therefore, the correct option is A) True.

// Example of testing in Agile development
public class CalculatorTest {

   public void testAddition() {
      Calculator calculator = new Calculator();
      assertEquals(5, calculator.add(2, 3));

   public void testSubtraction() {
      Calculator calculator = new Calculator();
      assertEquals(-1, calculator.subtract(2, 3));


What is SPICE?

SPICE stands for Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination.

It is a framework for defining and assessing software development processes. SPICE is used to evaluate and improve the processes used to develop software, with the aim of improving software quality, reducing costs, and increasing efficiency.

Activities involved in System Planning and Designing phase of SDLC

In the system planning and designing phase of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the following activities are involved:

- Parallel run - Sizing - Specification freeze

Therefore, the correct option is D) All of the above.

Correcting Testing Terminologies

In software testing, it is essential to know the different kinds of testing techniques used to ensure quality software. One common mistake is the incorrect use of terminologies associated with testing, which can cause confusion among team members. One example is the identification of incorrect testing techniques.

Option B is the incorrect testing technique as collaboration testing is not a proper term related to software testing. Instead, it should be called the "Collaborative Testing" technique.

The following are the correct testing techniques:

  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • System Testing

Using accurate testing terminologies is essential to maintain effective communication and avoid confusion among software testing team members.


function collaborativeTesting() {
  // This is not a proper testing technique

function unitTesting() {
  // This is a testing technique that tests individual units/components of software

function integrationTesting() {
  // This testing technique tests the integrated modules of software

function systemTesting() {
  // This testing technique tests the entire software system

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