SAP Security Interview Questions to Ace Your Job Interview (2023) - IQCode

SAP Security: Protecting Critical Assets

SAP (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is an enterprise management system that major corporations worldwide use to manage their operations and workflow. However, these systems contain sensitive information about finances, customers, and employees, which needs to be kept secure. SAP Security comes into play in this scenario.

SAP Security aims to protect SAP Systems from unauthorized access, whether users are accessing the system locally or remotely. It provides access to data where it is required and prevents access where it is not in the system.

SAP Security is all about giving business users the right access and permissions based on their roles and authority. In order to ensure the system remains protected and works correctly, it is crucial to have a good internal security and access process in place.

Below is a frequently asked SAP security interview question for freshers:

1. What is the purpose of 'User Compare' in SAP Security?


// Begin code

// User comparison is a tool in SAP Security that allows a comparison between two users or roles. A user compare

// helps to check if there are any missing authorizations between the target and reference users. This tool is used

// to identify differences between two users based on their roles and transaction code authorizations.

// This is very useful in troubleshooting and ensuring that authorizations are set up correctly.

function userCompare(targetUser, referenceUser) {

const missingAuths = [];

targetRoles = getRoles(targetUser); referenceRoles = getRoles(referenceUser);

// Compare roles and check for authorization differences for (let i = 0; i < targetRoles.length; i++) { if (!referenceRoles.includes(targetRoles[i])) { missingAuths.push(targetRoles[i]); } } // Compare transaction codes and check for authorization differences targetTCodes = getTCodes(targetUser); referenceTCodes = getTCodes(referenceUser); for (let i = 0; i < targetTCodes.length; i++) { if (!referenceTCodes.includes(targetTCodes[i])) { missingAuths.push(targetTCodes[i]); } } if (missingAuths.length == 0) { console.log("No Differences Found"); } else { console.log("Missing Authorizations: " + missingAuths); } } // End code Note: The above code is an example implementation of a function that compares two users. It is not an actual tool used in SAP Security.

SAP Security Layers

In order to ensure a secure SAP system, it is important to implement different layers of security. Here are some examples:

1. Authentication

The first layer of security is authentication, which verifies the identity of users attempting to access the system. SAP provides various authentication mechanisms such as passwords, biometrics, and smart cards.

2. Authorization

Authorization ensures that authenticated users are granted access to only the resources and functions that they are authorized to use. SAP uses roles and authorizations to manage this layer of security.

3. Network Security

Network security includes measures such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to protect SAP systems from unauthorized access over the network.

4. Data Encryption

Data encryption protects sensitive data during transmission and storage. SAP supports various encryption standards such as SSL/TLS, SNC, and PGP.

5. Auditing and Monitoring

Auditing and monitoring provide visibility into user activities and events in the SAP system. This layer of security helps to detect and respond to security incidents in a timely manner.

Different T-Codes for SAP Security

In SAP Security, T-Codes (Transaction Codes) play a significant role. Here are some of the essential T-Codes for SAP Security:


: User Maintenance


: User Information System


: Role Maintenance


: System Trace


: Data Browser

These T-Codes help in managing users and roles, viewing user information, analyzing the system trace, and browsing data. Having a good knowledge of these T-Codes can help in enhancing SAP Security.

Types of SAP System Users

There are several types of users in SAP systems, including:

  • Dialog users: They perform transactional tasks, such as viewing or updating data. They usually log on to a system via an SAP GUI.
  • System users: They are used by background jobs, such as batch data processing or backups.
  • Communication users: They provide communication between different systems.
  • Service users: They are used by external services, such as mobile devices or web services.
  • Reference users: They are used to test or troubleshoot SAP systems.

Each user type has a specific purpose and role in the SAP system. It's important to set up appropriate user access and authorizations to ensure system security and integrity.

Types of Users for Background Jobs and Troubleshooting

In general, there are two types of users for background jobs - regular users and background users. Regular users can submit background jobs, but they can only view the output of their own jobs. On the other hand, background users have more privileges and can monitor and manage all background jobs.

To troubleshoot problems that a background user faces, you need to first identify the issue. Check the user's permissions and ensure they have sufficient privileges to perform the required job. Additionally, check if there are any errors in the job logs. If there are, review the logs to identify the root cause of the error and take appropriate action to resolve it. If the issue persists, escalate it to the appropriate support team for further assistance.

Checking Table Logs and Relevant T-Codes

To check the table logs, follow these steps:

  1. Go to transaction code SM30 to display table views.
  2. Select the relevant table.
  3. Click on the Display/Change button (pencil icon).
  4. Select "Log data changes" under the Extras menu.
  5. You will be able to view the change logs for the selected table.

Some relevant transaction codes for checking table logs are:

  • SCU3 - To display change documents.
  • SE16 - To display table data and change logs.
  • SE16N - Newer version of SE16.
  • SM20 - To view system logs and user logs.
  • SM21 - To view system log status and details.

Concept of SAP Roles and Authorization

In SAP, roles are used to define a set of permissions or authorizations for users to access specific functionalities within the system. Each role is associated with a set of transactions, reports, or other objects that the user is allowed to perform or view within the system.

Authorization objects are used to define the conditions under which a user can perform a particular transaction or access certain data in the system. These authorization objects are assigned to user roles, thereby granting users the ability to perform certain tasks or view specific information.

Overall, roles and authorizations are critical components of SAP security, ensuring that only authorized users have access to sensitive data and functionalities within the system. Properly defining and managing roles and authorizations is key to maintaining a secure SAP environment.

Types of Roles in SAP Security

In SAP Security, there are various types of roles, such as:

1. Transaction Roles: These roles are used to provide access to specific transactions in the SAP system.

2. Display Roles: These roles are used to allow users to view specific data in the SAP system.

3. Organizational Roles: These roles are used to provide access to specific organizational units within the SAP system.

4. Composite Roles: These roles are used to combine multiple single roles into a single role.

5. Master Roles: These are high-level roles that grant access to multiple transactions, organizational units, and data in the SAP system.

6. Derived Roles: These roles are created by copying and modifying an existing role to make it specific to a user's needs.

By assigning appropriate roles to users, SAP Security ensures that each user has access to the necessary transactions, data, and organizational units required to carry out their job responsibilities.

How can I add authorization that was previously missing?

You can add missing authorization by following these steps:

  1. Identify the missing authorization and the relevant user or group who needs access.
  2. Generate an access token or obtain one from an existing authorized user.
  3. Use the access token to make an authenticated request to the API endpoints.
  4. Include the necessary authorization parameters in the request header.
  5. Test the request to ensure that access has been granted.

Understanding Segregation of Duties (SoD) in SAP Security

Segregation of Duties (SoD) is an essential principle in SAP Security, which aims to prevent fraud and errors by distributing critical tasks and authorizations among different users. This helps to ensure that no single person has complete control over a business process from start to finish.

In SAP security, SoD is achieved through the creation of rules, which specify which roles and authorizations should not be assigned to the same user. These rules are based on the principle of separation of duties, which mandates that no user should have conflicting permissions in a system.

The SoD concept is a crucial aspect of compliance regulations like Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), which require companies to establish internal controls to prevent fraudulent activities and financial misstatements.

To achieve SoD compliance in SAP Security, organizations need to perform regular access reviews, monitor user behavior, and implement automated controls to detect and prevent unauthorized activities. This helps to ensure that users can only access the data and perform tasks that are essential for their job roles.

Creating a User Group in SAP

To create a user group in SAP, you can follow the below steps:

1. Go to transaction code "SU01" and select "User Maintenance".

2. Click on the "User Group" tab and click on the "Create" button.

3. Enter a name for the user group and a short description.

4. Select the users you want to add to this group using the "Add User" button.

5. Save the user group by clicking on the "Save" button.

Once the user group is created, you can assign roles or authorizations to the group, which will be inherited by all the users in the group. This makes it easy to manage the authorizations for a group of users, rather than assigning them individually.

Explanation of Role Templates

Role templates are used to define a set of common characteristics or attributes for a specific role in a system or organization. These templates serve as a starting point for creating new users in a particular role, ensuring that all users in that role have a consistent set of permissions, access, and responsibilities.

For example, in a company's project management system, there might be a role template for a project manager. This role template could include permissions to create and edit projects, assign tasks, and view progress reports. When a new user is added to the system as a project manager, they can be assigned the project manager role template, which automatically gives them the appropriate permissions and access.

Using role templates can help streamline the process of adding new users to a system, and ensures that all users in a particular role have the same level of access and responsibilities. It also makes it easier to manage user permissions and access, as any changes to a role template will automatically apply to all users with that role.

State the Difference between Role and Profile

In a software system, a role refers to a specific set of permissions or authority given to a user to perform certain tasks or access certain resources. On the other hand, a profile typically refers to a collection of settings and preferences that define how a user interface should appear and function for a particular user.

In simpler terms, a role determines what a user can do within a system, while a profile determines how the system appears and behaves for a particular user. Roles are typically assigned to control access and security within a system, while profiles are used to provide a personalized experience for each user.

Maximum Profiles and Objects in a Role

In Salesforce, the maximum number of profiles in a role is 2, and the maximum number of objects in a role is also 2.

Useful Reports or Programs for Regenerating SAP_ALL Profiles


To regenerate SAP_ALL profiles, the following reports or programs can be useful:

- PFCG_TIME_DEPENDENCY: checks the time dependencies of profiles - PFCG_OLD_PROF_DELETION: deletes old profiles - PFCG_GENERATE_ALL_PROFILES: generates new profiles for all authorization objects

SAP Security Interview Questions for Experienced

16. Can you explain the difference between USOBT_C and USOBX_C?




both represent authorization objects in SAP Security. However, there are some differences between them.


stands for User Authorization Checks for Transactions and contains the transaction codes for which users have authorization to execute. This table gets updated whenever a user is given or removed authorizations for any transaction codes.

On the other hand,


is for Structural Authorization Checks for transactions. It holds information about authorization checks that are related to the structure of transactions. When a transaction code is executed, the system checks if all components are authorized or not based on this table.

In summary,


deals with assigning authorizations to transaction codes for users, while


focuses on the structural authorization checks for executing a transaction.

Authorization Class and Authorization Object

In the context of software development, an authorization class refers to a set of rules and permissions that determine what actions a user is permitted to take within a system. This class is responsible for ensuring that users are only able to access resources and perform actions that they are authorized to do so.

On the other hand, an authorization object is a specific instance of an authorization class. It defines the access rights for one or more users or user groups to certain system resources, such as files, reports or transactions.

In simpler terms, the authorization class is the blueprint that defines the rules for what users are and aren't allowed to do, while the authorization object is the specific instance of that blueprint that applies those rules to a particular set of users or resources. Both are important components of ensuring secure and controlled access to a software system.

What is the T-code for maintaining Authorization Objects and Profiles?

In SAP, the T-code used for maintaining Authorization Objects and Profiles is "SU21". This T-code is used by administrators to manage the various authorization objects and profiles that are used to control access to different transactions and data within the SAP system. It allows you to create, delete, modify, and display authorization objects and profiles, as well as perform other related tasks such as generating reports and defining default values. By using SU21 effectively, administrators can ensure that users have the appropriate level of access to perform their tasks while ensuring that sensitive data remains secure.

Authorization Objects Required to Create and Maintain User Records

To create and maintain user records, the following authorization objects are required:

- Authorization object S_USER_GRP: This object is used to assign users to user groups. - Authorization object S_USER_AUT: This object is used to assign users to authorization profiles. - Authorization object S_USER_PRO: This object is used to create and maintain user profiles. - Authorization object S_USER_USR: This object is used to create and maintain user master records.

It is important to ensure that only authorized personnel have access to these objects to maintain the confidentiality and security of user data.

Understanding User Buffer and its Control Parameter

In computing, a user buffer is a region of physical memory used for temporarily storing data while it's being moved from one place to another. This buffer is managed by the operating system and is typically implemented as a data structure associated with an input/output operation.

The number of entries in the user buffer is controlled by a parameter known as the buffer size. The buffer size determines how much data can be stored in the user buffer at any given time. It is important to carefully choose an appropriate buffer size to avoid performance issues. If the buffer size is too small, the system may need to frequently allocate and deallocate memory which can slow down the operations. On the other hand, if the buffer size is too large it can lead to wasted memory space.

In summary, understanding the user buffer and the control parameter of the buffer size is important for optimizing system performance during data transfer operations.

List of T-Codes to Display User Buffers and Delete Old Security Audit Logs

In order to display user buffers and delete old security audit logs, the following T-Codes can be used:

  • SM12 - This T-Code is used to display user locks and user buffers. It allows users to check the status of locked entries, and to delete obsolete user buffers.
  • SM18 - This T-Code is used to delete old security audit logs. It allows users to set the retention period, or to delete logs that are no longer needed.

To protect the system and maintain its performance, it is recommended to regularly delete old logs and obsolete user buffers.

Procedure for deleting multiple roles from QA, Dev, and Production systems

To delete multiple roles from QA, Dev, and Production systems, follow these steps:

1. Log in to each system using valid credentials. 2. Navigate to the user roles section. 3. Select the roles you wish to delete. 4. If there is no built-in functionality to delete multiple roles at once, delete each role individually. 5. Confirm the deletion of each role. 6. Verify that the roles have been successfully deleted from the system.

It is important to exercise caution when deleting roles, as this can impact user access and permissions in the system. Always coordinate with the appropriate individuals or teams before making any changes to system roles.

Main Tabs in PFCG

In PFCG (Profile Generator), there are different main tabs available to define user roles. These tabs include:

- Roles: Used to define new roles or edit existing ones. - Menu: Used to define menu structures for the roles. - Authorization: Used to assign authorization objects to the roles. - User assignment: Used to assign roles to users. - User comparison: Used to compare roles assigned to different users.

Each of these tabs plays a crucial role in defining and maintaining user roles in the system.

Steps to Take Before Running System Trace

Before running the system trace, it is important to take the following steps:

  1. Identify the problem that needs to be solved or analyzed to determine if a system trace is necessary.
  2. Review the application or process that is experiencing the problem to gather pertinent information about it.
  3. Ensure that the appropriate permissions have been granted to run the system trace on the system or device.There may be restrictions on who can run the trace and what information can be viewed.
  4. Determine the correct parameters for the system trace. These parameters include what data should be collected, the duration of the trace, and the location where the system trace data will be saved.
  5. Back up any system or application data to be traced to prevent loss of data during the trace process, in case of a system crash or other unexpected issues.
  6. Notify any stakeholders who may be impacted by the system trace, such as end users or system administrators, of the upcoming trace, its purpose and expected duration, and any potential impacts to system or application performance.

By taking these steps, you can ensure that the system trace process runs smoothly and provides the necessary information to solve the problem at hand.

Which table stores illegal passwords?

Do you know the name of the database table that stores illegal passwords?


PFCG_TIME_DEPENDENCY is a parameter used in the SAP system. It determines how long user roles in the system should be valid before they expire and require review and reauthorization. This is an important security measure to prevent unauthorized access and ensure the integrity of the system. By setting an appropriate value for PFCG_TIME_DEPENDENCY, system administrators can ensure that users are regularly reviewed and access is kept up to date. This helps to maintain a secure and efficient system for all users.

System User Deletions

It seems like a user has been deleted from our system, and I am curious to find out who did it. Is there a table or a log of such events available?

Understanding Profile Version

Profile version refers to a specific version or iteration of a user's profile on a website or application. This means that each time a user makes changes to their profile, such as updating their profile picture or adding new information, the profile version is changed.

The profile version can be useful in tracking changes to a user's profile over time and can also be used to retrieve a specific version of a profile if necessary.

Overall, profile version is an important concept in the world of web development and user profiles.

// Example code for tracking profile version let user = { name: "John", age: 25, profileVersion: 1 // current version of user's profile };

function updateProfile(user, newName, newAge) { = newName; user.age = newAge; user.profileVersion++; // increase profile version after each update }

updateProfile(user, "Jane", 30); console.log(user); // { name: "Jane", age: 30, profileVersion: 2 }

Can we delete roles in bulk without deleting the new roles in SAP?

Is there a way to delete multiple roles at once without affecting the newly created roles in SAP?

//code to delete roles in bulk without deleting the newly created roles

It is important to be cautious while deleting any roles in SAP, as it may impact the system's functionality. It is recommended to test the deletion process on a test system before making any changes to the production system.

Values for User Lock

In which context are you referring to "User Lock?" If you are referring to a feature in a software system, the values for User Lock can vary depending on the implementation. Typically, User Lock is set to "True" or "False" to indicate whether a particular user account is locked or unlocked, respectively. However, the specific values and their meanings can vary depending on the software system being used.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 31: What is an SAP security role?


N/A (It is not a programming task to answer the given question)

Learning SAP Security

As an AI language model, I cannot provide subjective opinions. However, I can give you some information about SAP Security.

SAP Security is a complex and specialized field that requires knowledge of both SAP systems and information security concepts. The difficulty of learning SAP Security depends on your prior experience and knowledge in these areas.

If you have experience working with SAP systems and have a strong background in information security, then you may find SAP Security easier to learn. However, if you are new to either SAP systems or information security, then you may need to invest a significant amount of time and effort to develop your skills and knowledge.

Whether SAP Security is easy or difficult to learn, it is an important and in-demand skill in many industries. As more companies adopt SAP systems, the need for skilled SAP Security professionals will continue to grow.

SAP BASIS and Security

SAP BASIS refers to the system administration of SAP software. It involves installation, configuration, and maintenance of SAP systems. Security in SAP BASIS involves protecting the system from unauthorized access or threats to data integrity. It is responsible for managing user access, roles, and authorizations within the SAP system. Overall, SAP BASIS and Security play a critical role in ensuring the smooth and secure functioning of SAP systems.

SAP Security and GRC: An Overview

SAP Security refers to the measures taken to protect SAP systems from unauthorized access, data theft, and other cyber threats. On the other hand, Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) refers to a set of practices and tools used to manage compliance with regulations, policies, and business goals.

In the context of SAP, GRC involves managing risk and compliance issues related to SAP systems. It involves establishing controls and policies, monitoring access and activities to ensure compliance, and managing risks associated with SAP applications.

Together, SAP Security and GRC ensure that sensitive business data is protected, regulatory compliance is maintained, and risk of fraud or cyber attacks is minimized. They are essential components of any organization's overall cybersecurity strategy to safeguard its SAP systems and business operations.

Is SAP Security a Good Career?

As an AI language model, I am not capable of providing subjective opinions. However, SAP Security is a highly specialized field in the field of IT, and it is an essential component of managing and securing SAP systems. With the continued reliance on SAP systems by businesses worldwide, there is a growing demand for skilled professionals in this field. So, if you have an interest in IT security and expertise in SAP systems, pursuing a career in SAP security can be a wise decision.

Salary of an SAP Security Analyst in India

As an AI language model, I do not have access to real-time salary data. However, the salary of an SAP Security Analyst in India may vary based on several factors such as experience, location, company, skills, etc. It is advisable to research on job portals and consult with industry experts to get a better understanding of the salary range for this position.

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