Commonly Asked Robot Framework Interview Questions for 2023 - IQCode

What is the Robot Framework?

The Robot Framework is an open-source framework used for acceptance testing and acceptance test-driven development. It offers three distinct styles for writing test cases including keyword-driven, behavior-driven, and data-driven, making it easy to understand. Test cases are written in a tabular structure using keyword language. The Robot Framework supports external libraries and open-source technologies that can be used for automation and is compatible with all operating systems. It is commonly used with the Selenium Library for web development and UI testing.

Many large tech companies use the Robot Framework to assist their software developers in constructing and testing cutting-edge computer solutions. This adaptable framework can be used with any other tool or platform to create something unique as it is entirely open source. The syntax used to integrate this framework into one's project is easy to understand, and the functions wrapped in the module can be used by anyone, even those with no technical knowledge.

Here are some interview questions for fresher candidates interested in the Robot Framework:

1. What are the features of the Robot Framework?

Benefits of Using the Robot Framework

The Robot Framework provides numerous benefits, including:

  • Easy to learn and use, even for people without prior programming experience
  • Support for a wide range of test automation libraries and tools for various application types and platforms
  • Ability to create clear and readable tests in a tabular format using plain English keywords
  • Flexible test configuration and customization options
  • Integrations with popular continuous integration and deployment tools like Jenkins, Travis CI, and GitLab CI
  • Active and supportive community with regular updates and contributions
  • Cross-platform support for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux operating systems

By using the Robot Framework, organizations can save time and resources by automating repetitive manual testing tasks, reducing the risk of errors, and increasing overall test coverage. Additionally, the framework's built-in reporting capabilities provide valuable insights into the testing process and results, allowing teams to identify and fix issues quickly.

The Supported File Formats by Robot Framework

Robot Framework supports a variety of file formats, including:


for test case files


for resource files


for library files

.tsv and .csv

for input data


for output reports

These file formats are commonly used in test automation and make it easy to create, manage and execute test cases.

Understanding "Ride" in the context of the Robot Framework

In the Robot Framework, "Ride" refers to the Robot Framework IDE (Integrated Development Environment). Ride is an easy-to-use editor for creating and editing automated test cases using the Robot Framework. Ride provides a user-friendly interface for generating test cases, executing them, and viewing the test results. It includes features such as syntax highlighting, autocomplete, and debugging tools to facilitate the development of efficient and accurate test cases. Overall, utilizing Ride within the Robot Framework helps automate testing processes and improves the quality of software applications.

Disadvantages of using the Robot Framework

While the Robot Framework has many advantages, there are also some disadvantages to using it:

  • Requires knowledge of a programming language to write custom libraries.
  • Not suitable for complex applications or projects.
  • Requires proper maintenance and updating to ensure compatibility with latest technologies.
  • Slow execution time compared to other automation frameworks.
  • Debugging can be difficult at times due to lack of detailed error messages.
// Example of using Robot Framework for a simple test
*** Settings ***
Documentation    This is a sample test case
Library          SeleniumLibrary
*** Test Cases ***
Verify Title
    Open Browser    chrome
    Title Should Be    Example Website
    Close Browser

Explanation of the Hierarchical Structure for Test Case Arrangement in the Robot Framework

In the Robot Framework, test cases can be arranged in a hierarchical structure known as a test suite. A test suite contains one or more test cases, and each test case can have multiple steps.

Test suites can be further organized into sub-suites, creating a layered hierarchy. This hierarchy allows for better organization and management of test cases, making it easier to locate and modify them.

Additionally, the Robot Framework allows for the use of tags to categorize and group test cases within a suite. This provides another layer of organization and helps to streamline test execution.

Overall, the hierarchical structure for arranging test cases in the Robot Framework is a powerful tool for efficiently managing and executing test cases in a structured and organized manner.

Types of Variables in Robot Framework

Robot Framework supports different types of variables:

${SCALAR_VARIABLE} : A scalar variable is a variable that has only one value at a time.
@{LIST_VARIABLE} : A list variable is a variable that can hold a list of values.
&{DICTIONARY_VARIABLE} : A dictionary variable is a variable that can hold key-value pairs.

Scalar variables are defined using the symbol dollar '$', list variables using the symbol '@', and dictionary variables using the symbol '&'.

For example,

${FIRST_NAME}=  John                     
@{FRUITS}=       apple   banana    orange  
&{PERSON}=       first_name=John    last_name=Doe    [email protected]

Dependency required for installation and use of RIDE Editor in Robot Framework

To install and use the RIDE Editor in the context of the Robot Framework, the dependency that is needed is wxPython. This is a graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit for Python that RIDE uses for its interface. Without this dependency, the installation and use of RIDE Editor is not possible.

Can Selenium Library be used to control the execution speed of test cases?

Yes, it is possible to use the Selenium library to control the speed of test case execution. The library offers the built-in method `time.sleep()` which can be used to pause the execution of the code for a specified amount of time. This method can be used to slow down the execution of the test cases.

For example, if you want to wait for 5 seconds before performing the next action in your test case, you can use the following line of code:

import time time.sleep(5)

On the other hand, if you want to speed up the execution of the test cases, you can try to optimize your code by reducing unnecessary actions, using efficient locators, reducing the use of explicit waits, etc. However, it is important to note that faster execution should not compromise the accuracy and effectiveness of the test cases.

High-Level Architecture of the Robot Framework

The Robot Framework is a generic test automation framework that follows a modular architecture design. Its high-level architecture consists of three main components - libraries, test cases, and test data.

1. Libraries: Libraries provide reusable keywords that are used by test cases to carry out specific actions. Libraries can be written using various programming languages such as Python, Java, and .NET.

2. Test Cases: Test cases are written in a high-level, easy to read language that can be understood by both technical and non-technical users. They are written in a tabular format and consist of three main sections - test setup, test execution, and test teardown.

3. Test Data: Test data is used to supply input and output data for test cases. It can be stored in various formats such as CSV, Excel spreadsheets, or XML.

The Robot Framework also includes a powerful reporting mechanism that generates detailed reports of test execution results and provides real-time feedback on the test execution progress.

Understanding Test Setup and Teardown in the Context of the Robot Framework

In the Robot Framework, test setup and teardown are crucial steps in setting up and tearing down the environments in which automated tests run.

The test setup step is responsible for preparing the test environment before the test is executed. It can involve actions such as connecting to databases, launching applications, and setting up configurations. The test teardown step, on the other hand, performs cleanup actions such as closing applications and disconnecting from databases.

Using test setup and teardown in the Robot Framework provides a consistent and reliable way of executing automated tests. By ensuring that the test environment is properly set up and torn down, it reduces the likelihood of test failures due to environmental issues. Additionally, it can help in reducing the time it takes to execute tests by reusing the same environments across multiple tests.

Overall, understanding the importance of test setup and teardown in the Robot Framework is essential to the development of effective and efficient automated tests.

Test Case Styles in the Context of the Robot Framework

In Robot Framework, there are two main test case styles:

1. Keyword-driven style: In this style, each test case is composed of a series of keywords that perform specific actions and tests. These keywords are reusable and can be used in different test cases, making the tests more modular and easier to maintain.

2. Behavior-driven style: In this style, test cases are written in a natural language format, focusing on the behavior and functionality of the system being tested. This style is more readable and understandable for non-technical stakeholders, such as business users and project managers.

Both styles have their own advantages and disadvantages and can be used depending on the testing requirements and the team's preferences.

Understanding Jenkins Freestyle Projects

In Jenkins, a freestyle project is a versatile approach to building software pipelines. It allows you to configure the build process through a simple GUI interface, without the need for scripting or programming knowledge. A Jenkins freestyle project provides a lot of customization options, such as specifying the source code management system, configuring build triggers, and defining post-build actions. It is a popular choice among Jenkins users due to its simplicity and flexibility. With a freestyle project, you can easily automate your build and deployment process, ensuring that your software is delivered quickly and efficiently.

Differences between Robot Framework and Selenium

Robot Framework is a generic test automation framework whereas Selenium is a specific tool for testing web applications.
Robot Framework uses a keyword-driven approach to write test cases whereas Selenium uses a programming language.
Robot Framework supports various test libraries and tools for testing different kinds of systems whereas Selenium is limited to testing web applications only.
Robot Framework provides an easy-to-use interface for creating test cases and generating reports whereas Selenium requires more expertise in programming.
Robot Framework has built-in support for continuous integration whereas Selenium requires external tools for CI support.
Robot Framework is platform-independent whereas Selenium is limited to working with platforms that support the programming languages used by Selenium.

// Example code snippet in Robot Framework Syntax
Open Browser    chrome
Input Text      css=input[name="q"]    Robot Framework
Click Button    name=btnK

Differences between Robot Framework and Cucumber

Robot Framework and Cucumber are both automation testing tools used for behavior-driven development. However, they differ in the following ways:

  • Programming languages: Robot Framework is built using Python, while Cucumber is built using Ruby. As such, users of Robot Framework may find it easier to integrate with other Python-based tools, while users of Cucumber may find it easier to integrate with other Ruby-based tools.
  • Syntax: Robot Framework uses a keyword-driven approach, where tests are written using pre-defined keywords. Cucumber, on the other hand, uses the Gherkin syntax, which is a natural language format for describing tests.
  • Integration: Robot Framework is more flexible and can be integrated with a wider range of tools, such as Selenium and Appium. Cucumber, on the other hand, is more tightly integrated with Ruby-based tools.
Overall, both tools are useful for automated testing, and the choice of which one to use largely depends on personal preference and specific project needs.

Testing a Web Application with Robot Framework

In order to test a web application using Robot Framework, I would create a test suite using keywords and test cases. For example, suppose I am testing a login page for a website called "". I would create the following keywords:

- Open Browser: to open the web browser and navigate to the login page. - Input Username: to input the username into the login form. - Input Password: to input the password into the login form. - Click Login Button: to click the button to submit the login form. - Verify Login Successful: to verify that the user is redirected to the homepage after successful login.

I would then create test cases using these keywords to check different scenarios, such as valid and invalid input, different combinations of username and password, and error handling.

In order to organize my test suite, I would use various .robot files such as:

- Test Suite File (.robot): to define the overall structure of the test suite, including the test cases and keywords. - Resource File (.robot): to define reusable keywords and variables that can be used across multiple test suites. - Test Data File (.tsv, .csv, .xls): to store the test data, such as usernames and passwords, that are used in the test cases.

By using these various .robot files, I can modularize my test suite and make it easier to maintain and scale as I continue testing the web application.

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