2023's Best Pega Interview Questions and Answers - IQCode
Overview of Pega Low Code Platform
Pega is a low-code platform that enables businesses to streamline their processes and customer journeys from start to finish. The concept of low code in the world of application development is relatively new, but it refers to an application that offers an easy-to-use interface to create code rather than writing it from scratch. In other words, these applications help you write code by automating the process for you, making it easier to learn without needing to learn a programming language.
Pega makes it easier for businesses to eliminate one of the most significant barriers to modern business by consolidating applications and systems. With Pega, you can have a single view of a customer, case, workflow, and data and intelligence by creating a customizable platform that sits on top of your existing systems. Its platform enables businesses to create fully customizable user interfaces, and its browser-based applications provide convenience as no software installation is required. Pega enables learning of past behavior through adaptive analytics.
/** * The Pega Low-Code Platform streamlines processes and customer journeys for businesses. * It is an easy-to-use interface to create code, making it easier to learn without needing * to learn a programming language. Pega allows businesses to consolidate applications and * systems with a single view of a customer, case, workflow, and data and intelligence all * on a customizable platform that sits on top of existing systems. * It enables businesses to create fully customizable user interfaces and learn from past * behavior through adaptive analytics. */
Overview of Classes in Pega
Pega is a popular BPM (Business Process Management) software used in various industries to streamline operations and improve productivity. In Pega, classes are used to define and organize data and functionality.
Pega offers different types of classes, each with a specific purpose. Some of the commonly used classes in Pega are:
1. Concrete Class: This is a class that can be instantiated to create objects. It stores data related to a specific entity, such as a customer, policy, or employee.
2. Abstract Class: This is a class that cannot be instantiated but serves as a template for other classes. It typically defines shared properties and rules that other classes can inherit.
3. Interface: An interface defines a set of methods that a class must implement. It allows different classes to have a common behavior, without being tightly coupled.
4. Rule-: These are special classes that define rules in Pega. The most commonly used ones are Rule-Obj- (for rule types related to specific objects) and Rule-Template- (for rule templates).
Each class has a set of properties, rules, and other elements that define its behavior. In Pega, classes are organized in a hierarchical structure, where each class inherits properties and rules from its parent class. This allows for easy maintenance and reuse of code across applications.
Understanding Work Object in Pega and its Creation
In Pega, a work object refers to a specific instance of a case or a process that needs to be completed. It contains all the relevant data, including case details, deadlines, and task assignments.
To create a work object in Pega, you need to perform the following steps:
1. Define the case type: You need to define the type of case that you want to create, including its properties and the user interface.
2. Configure the process: You need to define the steps, stages, and tasks that are involved in completing the case. You can use Pega's Process Commander tool to do this.
3. Create a new case: Once you have defined the case type and configured the process, you can create a new case by clicking on the "Create New" button in the application menu. You will then be prompted to enter the necessary details and information for the case.
4. Save and submit the case: After entering the required information, you need to save the case and submit it for processing. The case will then be assigned to the appropriate user or team for further action.
Overall, work objects are a critical aspect of Pega's case management system, and understanding how to create them is essential for anyone looking to use the platform effectively.
Understanding DCO in Pega and Its Benefits
DCO stands for "Direct Capture of Objectives". In Pega, DCO refers to the process of capturing business requirements and transforming them into functional software applications. The objective of DCO is to streamline the development process and increase collaboration between business stakeholders and developers.
The benefits of DCO in the context of Pega are numerous. First, it helps to ensure that the final product meets the exact requirements of the business stakeholders, reducing the likelihood of misunderstandings and rework. Additionally, DCO allows for easy tracking and management of changes to requirements throughout the development process. This ensures that all stakeholders remain informed and up-to-date regarding any changes or updates.
Moreover, with DCO, business users can participate directly in the development process, which increases collaboration and helps to build a stronger relationship between IT and business teams. Finally, DCO helps to reduce the overall time and cost of development by eliminating the need for extensive documentation and handoffs, which can often cause delays and increase costs. Overall, DCO is a crucial component of Pega's development process and helps to ensure the success of the final product.
Understanding SLA in Pega and its significance
In the world of Pega, SLA stands for Service Level Agreement. It is a contract between a service provider and customer which outlines the level of service that will be provided.
The significance of SLA in Pega lies in ensuring that the service provided meets the expectations of the customer. It helps in managing and monitoring service levels, identifying areas that need improvement, and maintaining accountability.
In Pega, SLAs can be implemented using the Service Level Agreement rule and referenced in various workflows. This enables the system to automatically track and measure the performance of the service provider against the agreed service levels, and escalate issues if necessary.
Overall, SLA in Pega is an essential tool for maintaining customer satisfaction and ensuring that service providers meet their commitments.
Explanation of various types of SLA
An SLA (Service Level Agreement) is a contract between a service provider and customer, which specifies the level of service that should be provided to the customer. There are different types of SLAs that exist, which include:
1. Service-based SLA: This type of SLA defines the level of service that needs to be provided for a particular service. For example, the response time for a certain type of software application.
2. Customer-based SLA: This SLA is based on a specific customer's needs, and it is customized to meet their requirements. For instance, a company may have different response times for different customers based on their particular needs.
3. Multilevel SLA: Multilevel SLAs are designed for customers with different service levels and can be categorized into multiple SLAs for different customers. The purpose is to provide differentiated service levels to different customers.
4. Operational-level SLA: This type of SLA is used internally within a company to measure the performance of IT services. This is generally not visible to the customer.
In conclusion, the type of SLA selected generally depends on the nature of business and specific customer needs.
Types of Layout in Pega
There are several types of layouts available in Pega, including:
- Dynamic Layout
- Static Layout
- Screen Layout
- Grid Layout
- Column Layout
- Group Layout
A flexible, responsive layout that enables you to easily adjust the placement of fields and controls based on screen size and orientation.
A fixed layout that positions fields and controls in specific locations on the screen. This layout is recommended for screens with a consistent design and form factor.
An interface that allows for the design and configuration of complex user interfaces that are composed of smaller sections.
A layout format that enables you to display data in a table format with columns and rows.
A layout that enables you to arrange items vertically or horizontally in groups of one or more columns.
A layout that groups fields and controls together, and makes them collapsible or expandable as needed.
Creating a Dynamic Layout in Pega
To create a dynamic layout in Pega, follow these steps:
1. Open the section you want to add the dynamic layout to. 2. Drag and drop the Dynamic Layout container onto the section. 3. Click on the Dynamic Layout container and select "Properties". 4. In the properties panel, navigate to the "Layout" tab. 5. Select the type of dynamic layout you want from the drop-down menu (e.g., "Simple list", "Advanced list", "Tree"). 6. Configure the dynamic layout settings as needed, such as adding columns or configuring the list source. 7. Save the section.
Once the dynamic layout has been added to the section, it will render the appropriate UI based on the configuration settings. You can also modify the dynamic layout at any time by editing the section and making changes to the dynamic layout properties.
Explanation of Page-Validate and Property-Validate methods in Pega and their differences
In Pega, Page-Validate and Property-Validate are two validation methods used to ensure the accuracy and consistency of data entered into an application.
Page-Validate method verifies the entire page data entered by the user. It checks each property on the page to ensure that it has correct values and conforms to the defined data types, rules, and constraints set in the system.
Property-Validate method, on the other hand, validates a single property value entered by the user on a page. It only checks the specific property value for correctness based on the preset data types, rules, and constraints.
The primary difference between Page-Validate and Property-Validate is the scope of validation. The Page-Validate method is a broader approach that takes into consideration all properties present on a page, while the Property-Validate method focuses only on the validation of the designated property.
In terms of implementation, both methods can be executed during data entry, submit or commit action, or a defined process in the application.
Overall, the choice between Page-Validate or Property-Validate has to do with the specific needs of an application and the scope of the validation criteria required for that particular data.
Overview of Access Groups and Access Roles
Access groups and access roles are two important concepts in access control management that define how users can access resources within a system.
An access group is a collection of users who share common permissions and access rights to a set of resources. Access groups can be used to simplify access management by defining permissions at the group level rather than the individual level. For example, a company might create an access group for all employees who have access to financial data.
An access role, on the other hand, is a set of permissions or privileges that are assigned to an individual user or group within a specific access group. Access roles allow finer-grained control over access rights and can be used to restrict or grant access to specific resources within an access group. For example, within the financial data access group, an access role might be created for the accounting department with additional permissions to modify financial data.
The main difference between access groups and access roles is that access groups define broad permissions at the group level, while access roles provide more granular access control at the individual or group level within an access group.
Understanding Requestor Types in Pega
In Pega, a Requestor refers to an entity that makes a request to the server for a service or resource. A Requestor Type defines the type or category of the requestor in Pega. There are four different Requestor Types in Pega:
1. Standard Requestor - It is the default type of requestor that executes in a standard servlet service environment.
2. Batch Requestor - It is a requestor type that performs batch processing of large volumes of data or files.
3. Multi-Channel Framework (MCF) Requestor - It is used to serve multiple channels like email, mobile, web chat, etc., simultaneously.
4. Web User Requestor - It is used to handle web user requests or service cases in Pega.
By defining the requestor type, Pega ensures that each requestor executes efficiently and effectively to provide better performance and user experience.
Understanding Flow Actions in Pega
In Pega, flow actions are used for conducting a specific task in a case life cycle. It is an important part of the decision-making process, and it directs the user on what to do next. There are different types of flow actions that can be utilized depending on what the user wants to accomplish.
The different types of flow actions available in Pega are:
1. Create – used for creating a new object instance in the database. 2. Update – used for updating an existing object instance in the database. 3. Submit – used for submitting a new or updated object instance to another user or group for review. 4. Transfer – used for transferring a case or an assignment to another user or group. 5. Add – used for adding a new record to a database table. 6. Delete – used for deleting a record from a database table. 7. Call – used for calling an integration service to perform a predefined operation. 8. Utility – used for performing various utility functions such as copying values from one property to another, setting values of a property, etc.
These flow actions can be easily added to the flow in Pega using the Flow Designer Tool. By using flow actions, users can ensure that their case is progressing smoothly, and they can easily achieve their objectives within the case life cycle.
Understanding PRPC in the Context of Pega and its Benefits
PRPC (Pega Rules Process Commander) is the core technology behind Pega's platform used for building business process management and customer relationship management solutions. It is a Java-based tool that enables developers to create custom business applications without having to write extensive code.
PRPC's main benefits include its ability to accelerate development, simplify maintenance, and reduce costs associated with custom software development. It uses model-driven architecture, which allows developers and business analysts to build applications together, reducing the time required for development and testing. It also includes built-in features for security, reporting, and integration with other systems, making it easier to manage and maintain applications over time.
Another significant advantage of PRPC is its ability to handle complex business processes and rules. It supports business decision-making, enabling organizations to make better use of data and automate their business processes. This leads to greater efficiency and agility, helping organizations deliver better customer experiences and increase their bottom line.
Explanation of Activities in Pega and Best Practices for Using Them
Activities in Pega are rule instances that contain a set of actions to accomplish a specific task. They are used to implement the business logic and process flow of an application.
Here are some best practices to follow while using activities in Pega:
1. Use descriptive names for activities to improve readability and maintainability of the application.
2. Follow a modular approach to create activities. Divide complex tasks into smaller, more manageable tasks.
3. Use data transforms instead of activities for simple data manipulation tasks.
4. Include proper error handling and exception handling mechanisms to increase the reliability and fault-tolerance of the application.
5. Use the "Run When" condition appropriately to optimize performance and reduce unnecessary execution.
6. Avoid using activities to perform UI-related tasks. Use User Interface (UI) rules, such as sections and harnesses, for this purpose.
7. Use the "Rule-Obj-Report-Definition" rule type instead of activities for reporting and analytics-related tasks.
By following these best practices, developers can create efficient, reliable, and maintainable applications using activities in Pega.
Explanation of Decision Tables and Decision Trees in Pega
Decision Table: In Pega, a decision table is a grid-like structure that captures business rules. Each row represents a unique combination of inputs and each column represents a condition or an output. The decision table is used to determine the outcome of a process by evaluating the set of conditions that apply to the input data. In other words, the decision table helps in automating the decision-making process.
Decision Tree: The decision tree is another powerful tool in Pega, which is used to represent a sequence of rules or decisions. It is a graphical representation of the rules in the form of a tree. The decision tree shows all possible paths that can be taken based on a specific condition. It is used to model complex business processes and to assist in decision-making.
Differences between Decision Table and Decision Tree: The main differences between a decision table and a decision tree are as follows:
- Representation: In a decision table, the rules are represented in a tabular format, while in a decision tree, they are represented in a graphical format.
- Complexity: Decision tables are suitable for simple and straightforward decision-making processes, while decision trees are suitable for more complex decision-making processes.
- Visibility: A decision table provides a clear and concise way to represent business rules, while a decision tree can become complex and difficult to read if there are too many rules.
- Ease of maintenance: Decision tables are relatively easy to maintain, while decision trees can become difficult to maintain and update as the number of rules increases.
Rule Resolution in Pega and Its Benefits
In Pega, rule resolution refers to the process of finding and selecting the most appropriate rule to be executed when a case needs to be processed. The rule resolution process starts with the rule name and class, and then considers other criteria such as the version number and availability. Pega's rule engine selects the rule with the highest priority based on the criteria, and executes it.
The benefits of rule resolution in Pega are:
1. Flexibility: Rule resolution allows Pega to dynamically select the appropriate rule based on context, user interactions, and other factors, which enables greater flexibility and changes to be made quickly.
2. Efficiency: Rule resolution reduces the need for human intervention, ensuring consistency and accuracy, and automating routine tasks.
3. Consistency: Rule resolution ensures that rules are applied consistently across the organization, which reduces errors and improves compliance.
4. Extensibility: Rule resolution allows the reuse of rules, which reduces development time and costs, and enables consistent application of best practices.
Overall, rule resolution is a critical feature of Pega's rule engine, which maximizes the flexibility, efficiency, consistency, and extensibility of Pega applications.
Declarative Rule in Pega
In Pega, a declarative rule is a type of rule that defines a behavior or condition which should be automatically enforced when certain criteria are met. Rather than being triggered by a specific event, declarative rules run continuously in the background to help maintain data consistency and ensure that business rules are consistently applied.
Declarative rules fall into three main categories:
1. Constraints - These are rules that validate the correctness of data entered into a field within a Pega application. 2. On Change - These rules fire automatically when a specified property or value in a case or system changes. 3. Declare Expressions - These are rules that are used to derive a value based on a formula or expression, and can be used to automatically update fields on a form or report.
Declarative rules in Pega can help streamline business processes, enhance the quality of data entered into a system, and improve overall efficiency and consistency in decision-making.
What is an Agent in Pega?
In Pega, an Agent is a background process that performs tasks without any user interaction. It is responsible for processing requested items, managing records and optimizing performance. These tasks can be related to maintenance, event-handling, or other activities that do not need user input.
Agents are scheduled based on a predefined frequency, such as minutes, hours, or days, which is configurable in the Pega environment. They can be run on-demand as well as during specified time intervals. An agent can accept input or produce output, for instance, creating a work object of a particular class.
Overall, with the help of agents, Pega can automate tasks in the background, and ensure that business processes run efficiently and effectively.
Understanding Data Pages in Pega
In Pega, a data page is a dynamic container that holds information from external systems or data sources. It allows developers to retrieve data and optimize performance by fetching data only when needed.
Data pages are used to improve the overall performance of the application by minimizing calls to the database and other data sources. By storing frequently accessed data in a data page, Pega can retrieve the data more quickly and efficiently.
There are two types of data pages in Pega:
1. **Lookup Data Pages** These data pages contain the values of fields that are used frequently across the application. These values are retrieved when the user logs in, and updated whenever there is a change in the data source.
2. **Parameterized Data Pages** These data pages are used to retrieve data from external systems based on the parameters provided. The parameters can be passed to the data page from various sources like the user interface, clipboard, or other data pages.
In summary, data pages in Pega are a powerful feature that allows developers to optimize performance and improve user experience by retrieving data efficiently from external data sources.
PEGA Interview Questions for Experienced
Question 20: Can you explain case management in the context of PEGA? What are its benefits?
Answer: Case management in PEGA is a process that incorporates case work, which is an accumulation of related tasks done to achieve a particular business objective. It involves the organization, coordination, tracking, and automation of a set of activities executed by individuals, teams, or systems.
Benefits of case management in PEGA include improved efficiency and productivity, reduced errors, and improved visibility and control over business processes. It also fosters collaboration among team members and promotes better communication with clients by providing streamlined and transparent status updates. Furthermore, PEGA's case management allows for dynamic changes to be made to a case in real-time, allowing for fluid adaptations to evolving business requirements or customer needs.
Explanation of Locking in Pega
Locking in Pega refers to the process of preventing multiple users from accessing and editing the same data simultaneously. It puts a lock on data to ensure that only one user can edit the same data at a time to prevent conflicts.
There are three types of locking in Pega:
1. Optimistic Locking 2. Pessimistic Locking 3. Dual or Multi Locking
Optimistic locking allows multiple users to access data simultaneously, but when they try to save the data, Pega checks if there are any conflicts. If no conflicts are found, the system saves the data. However, if there are conflicts, the system prompts users to resolve them manually.
Pessimistic locking, on the other hand, allows only one user to access the data. The data stays locked until the user releases the lock or closes the form.
Dual or multi-locking involves a combination of optimistic and pessimistic locking. It allows multiple users to view the data simultaneously, but only one user can edit the data.
Understanding Exposed Properties in Pega
In the context of Pega, an exposed property is a property that is accessed by external systems or services as part of an API. Exposed properties serve as the interface between Pega and other systems, allowing data to be shared and processed.
Exposed properties can be defined by developers to expose specific data stored in Pega to external systems. They can also be used to fetch data from external systems and store it in Pega for processing.
By using exposed properties, Pega enables seamless communication and integration between systems, making it easier to develop and maintain complex applications.
Declaration of Index in PEGA
In PEGA, a Declare Index is a method of indexing data to enhance performance when searching or aggregating data. This index can be set up by following these steps:
1. Identify the class that needs to have an index declared. 2. Create a new declare index rule. 3. Provide the necessary information including the class on which the index is being declared, the properties that need to be indexed, the conditions that must be satisfied for the index to be updated. 4. Save and generate the index rule.
Once the above steps are followed, the system will start building the index once the rule is saved. It will be updated based on the conditions specified and can be used in reports or for referencing in activities. Declaration of Index can lead to significant performance gains, especially when dealing with large amounts of data.
Measuring Application Performance in Pega
In Pega, there are several tools you can use to measure the performance of your application. One way is to use the Performance Profiler, which allows you to identify potential bottlenecks in your application. You can also use the Log Analyzer to analyze system logs and troubleshoot performance issues.
Another tool is the Performance Scorecard, which provides a comprehensive view of your application's performance. It measures key performance indicators such as response time and throughput and presents the data in an easy-to-read dashboard.
Additionally, Pega provides performance monitoring capabilities through its Predictive Diagnostic Cloud. This tool captures performance data in real-time and provides insights into performance issues before they affect end-users.
Overall, measuring and optimizing your application's performance is crucial for providing a positive user experience and ensuring the success of your business.
Understanding Work List and Work Basket in Pega
In Pega, a worklist is a collection of work items assigned to an individual worklist operator. Work items in a worklist can be sorted, filtered, and searched based on priority, status, and other criteria. Worklists help individuals track their assigned tasks and manage their workload effectively.
On the other hand, a workbasket is a shared pool of work items that can be assigned to multiple workbasket operators. Workbasket operators have the ability to claim work items from the workbasket, work on them, and return them to the workbasket. Workbaskets are useful for group-specific tasks that need to be performed by multiple individuals.
Overall, worklists and workbaskets are essential features in Pega that enable effective task management and collaboration among team members.
Declaration of Triggers in Pega: Overview and Creation Process
In Pega, a "Declare Trigger" is an event-driven rule that triggers certain actions when a specified condition is met. It is used to automate the execution of certain pre-defined tasks when an event occurs, and is commonly used in conjunction with database interactions, such as saving, updating, or deleting records.
Creating a "Declare Trigger" in Pega involves the following steps:
- Identify the relevant class and property that will trigger the action.
- Choose the type of action that will be taken when the Declare Trigger is triggered.
- Configure the declared elements by defining the scope (such as global or specific class instances), logic, values, and conditions that will define how the trigger event is triggered.
- Save and test the Declare Trigger to ensure that it is working as intended.
To create a Declare Trigger in Pega, follow the steps below:
- Open the relevant class rule in Pega.
- In the "Rulesets and Classes" tab, expand the "Triggers" section, and select "Declare Trigger".
- Specify the trigger settings, such as trigger type, event type, and condition, using the dropdown menus and fields provided.
- Select the "Declare On" statements for the trigger.
- Add the functionality to be triggered using the "Action" tab options.
- Save the rule and test the functionality to ensure that it works correctly.
By following these steps, you can create and implement functional and effective Declare Triggers in Pega, allowing for efficient and automated execution of targeted tasks when specific events occur.
Understanding Forward Chaining and Backward Chaining
Forward and backward chaining are two common methods used in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for problem-solving and decision-making.
Forward Chaining: In this approach, the system starts with the available information and deduces new information that is logically derived from it. Forward chaining is more commonly used in rule-based systems, where the priority is to detect problems, rather than to explain why or how they arise.
For example, in a medical diagnosis system, forward chaining is used to diagnose the patient's illness based on the symptoms. The system starts with the patient's symptoms and infers potential causes. As more symptoms are added, the system continues to narrow down the possible diagnosis.
Backward Chaining: This approach starts with a goal and works backward to find the solution or answer to a specific problem. The backward chaining method is commonly used in expert systems, where the system is designed to provide solutions based on particular questions or queries.
For instance, in a legal expert system, backward chaining can be used to determine if a particular case constitutes fraud. The system starts with the definition of fraud and compares it to the case's details. If the case meets the criteria for fraud, the system provides a conclusion.
Overall, both forward and backward chaining techniques are used to solve complex problems in AI, and their choice depends on the specific application's requirements.
Understanding Spinoff and Split Join Shape in Pega
In Pega, split join shape is a shape used in flow design that allows you to split actions into multiple parallel tasks, with each task running independently. Split join shape can be extremely useful when you need to process large amounts of data or when you want to complete multiple actions simultaneously.
On the other hand, spinoff is a technique used to create a child case from a parent case. This allows you to break a larger case into smaller, more manageable cases.
In both cases, Pega provides a way to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of your case processing. By using split join shape, you can accomplish multiple tasks in parallel, while spinoff allows you to divide a larger case into smaller parts for easier management.