Top 25 MySQL Interview Questions You Need to Know in 2023 - IQCode

Introduction to MySQL

MySQL is a popular open-source relational database management system (RDBMS), which can be run on a web server or a local server. It is known for its speed, reliability and ease-of-use, and uses standard SQL syntax and runs on multiple platforms. It is a multithreaded, multi-user SQL database management system.

The data in a MySQL database is organized into tables which consist of rows and columns. MySQL has stand-alone clients which let users interact with the database directly using SQL. However, it is more commonly used in conjunction with other software to create applications that require relational database functionality. MySQL boasts more than 11 million installations worldwide.

Basic MySQL Interview Questions

  1. What is MySQL?
  2. MySQL is an open-source relational database management system used to store and manage data in the form of tables which consists of rows and columns. It is fast, reliable, and easy to use and is commonly used with other programs to build applications requiring database functionality.

Advantages of Using MySQL

MySQL is a popular Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) known for its numerous advantages. Some of its advantages include:

  • Open source software that is completely free to use
  • Supports multiple platforms such as Windows, Linux, and MacOS
  • Provides high performance, reliability, and scalability
  • Offers excellent data security and access control mechanisms
  • Easy to set up, use and maintain, even for beginners
  • Has a large and active community providing support, updates, and resources

// Sample MySQL code to connect to a database and perform a query
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// Create connection
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);

// Check connection
if (!$conn) {
    die("Connection failed: " . mysqli_connect_error());

// Perform query
$sql = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE age > 18";
$result = mysqli_query($conn, $sql);

// Print results
if (mysqli_num_rows($result) > 0) {
    while($row = mysqli_fetch_assoc($result)) {
        echo "Name: " . $row["name"]. " - Age: " . $row["age"]. "<br>";
} else {
    echo "0 results";

// Close connection

What are Databases?

Databases are organized collections of data that are stored and accessed electronically. They can range from small, personal databases to large, enterprise-level systems. Databases are commonly used in software applications to store data and provide efficient retrieval and manipulation of that data.

What is the meaning of SQL in MySQL?

SQL stands for Structured Query Language, and it is a programming language that helps manipulate and manage relational databases. MySQL is an open-source relational database management system that utilizes the SQL language for its operations.

//Example of MySQL code using SQL language
SELECT column1, column2, …  FROM table_name WHERE condition;

Contents of a MySQL Database

A MySQL database contains one or more tables consisting of rows and columns. Each table is identified by a unique name and consists of specific fields and data types. The data in the tables is organized based on the relational model, making it easy to manage and access. The database may also contain stored procedures, functions, triggers, and other objects that provide additional functionality. Overall, a MySQL database stores important information and serves as a crucial component of many applications and websites.

How to Interact with MySQL?

To interact with MySQL, you can use one of the following methods:

  1. Command-line client using MySQL shell
  2. GUI application like phpMyAdmin, MySQL Workbench, or HeidiSQL
  3. Programming language API like Python's mysql-connector or PHP's PDO library

Using the command-line client, you can execute SQL queries and manage the MySQL server. With a GUI application, you can access and modify your databases using a graphical interface. Lastly, using a programming language API, you can use code to connect to, query, and manipulate your data in MySQL.

Understanding MySQL Database Queries

MySQL database queries are commands that are used to retrieve, insert, update, or delete data in a MySQL database. These queries are written in structured query language (SQL) and are used to interact with the database. They can be executed using any MySQL client or application that supports MySQL. Database queries are essential to managing and organizing data in a MySQL database. SQL also offers a wide range of functions and operators that can be used to manipulate data, create tables, and perform calculations.

Common MySQL Commands

MySQL is a popular open-source relational database management system. Here are some of the most common commands used in MySQL:

SHOW DATABASES; USE [database_name]; SHOW TABLES; DESCRIBE [table_name]; SELECT * FROM [table_name]; INSERT INTO [table_name] (column1, column2, ...) VALUES (value1, value2, ...); UPDATE [table_name] SET column1=value1, column2=value2, ... WHERE [condition]; DELETE FROM [table_name] WHERE [condition]; DROP DATABASE [database_name]; DROP TABLE [table_name];

These commands are used to create, manipulate, and delete databases and tables and to retrieve data from them.

Creating a Database in MySQL

To create a database in MySQL, you can use the following SQL command:

CREATE DATABASE database_name;

Make sure to replace "database_name" with the name you want to give to your new database. You can run this command using the MySQL command line tool or any MySQL database management tool that provides a query interface. Once the command is executed, you should see a confirmation message that the database has been created successfully.

Creating a Table Using MySQL

To create a table in MySQL, use the following SQL query:

CREATE TABLE table_name (
    column1 datatype,
    column2 datatype,
    column3 datatype,

Replace "table_name" with the desired name of your table and "column1," "column2," etc. with the names of your table columns. Also, replace "datatype" with the specific datatype you want to use for each column.

After executing the SQL query, your new table will be created in the MySQL database.

How to Insert Data into MySQL

To insert data into MySQL, you can use the INSERT INTO statement. The syntax for the statement is as follows:

INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2, column3, ...)
VALUES (value1, value2, value3, ...);

Here, `table_name` refers to the name of the table where you want to insert the data, while `column1`, `column2`, `column3`, etc. refer to the columns of the table where you want to insert the data. `value1`, `value2`, `value3`, etc. are the actual values that you want to insert into the respective columns.

For example, let's say you have a table called `employees` with columns `id`, `name`, and `salary`. To insert a new employee with ID 1, name "John Doe", and salary 50000, you can use the following statement:

INSERT INTO employees (id, name, salary)
VALUES (1, "John Doe", 50000);

Make sure to properly format your values based on their data type. Also, if you want to insert data for all columns in the table, you can omit the column names in the INSERT INTO statement and just list the values in the correct order.

Removing a Column from a Database

To remove a column from a database table, you can use the ALTER TABLE statement with the DROP COLUMN clause. Here is an example SQL code:

ALTER TABLE table_name DROP COLUMN column_name;

Replace the "table_name" with the name of the table from which you want to remove the column, and "column_name" with the name of the column you want to remove.

It's important to note that when you remove a column, all data stored in that column will be permanently lost. Therefore, it's recommended to backup the database before making any changes.

Creating an Index in MySQL

To create an index in MySQL, you can use the CREATE INDEX statement followed by the desired index name, the table name, and the column(s) you want to index. Here is an example:

CREATE INDEX index_name
ON table_name (column1, column2, ...);

Make sure to replace "index_name", "table_name", "column1", "column2", etc. with the actual names you want to use. Additionally, you can specify whether you want the index to be unique or not by adding the keyword "UNIQUE" before "INDEX".

Indexes can greatly improve query performance in MySQL by allowing the MySQL optimizer to quickly locate the data you are searching for. However, be aware that indexes can also slow down write operations (such as INSERT or UPDATE statements) as the indexes themselves need to be updated. Therefore, it's important to carefully consider which columns to index and when to use indexes in your database design.

Deleting Data From a MySQL Table

To delete data from a MySQL table, you can use the DELETE statement in SQL. The DELETE statement removes one or more rows of data from a table. The basic syntax for the DELETE statement is as follows:

DELETE FROM table_name WHERE condition;

Here, "table_name" refers to the name of the table you want to delete data from, and "condition" specifies which rows of data you want to delete based on specific criteria. For example, if you want to delete all rows of data from a table named "customers" where the customer's age is 30, you would use the following SQL query:

DELETE FROM customers WHERE age=30;

It's important to note that the DELETE statement permanently removes data from a table, so use it with caution and always make sure you have a backup of your data before making any changes.

Viewing a Database in MySQL

To view a database in MySQL, you can follow these steps:

1. Open the MySQL Command Line Client.

2. Enter your MySQL username and password to log in.

3. Type "USE database_name;" to select the database you want to view.

4. Type "SHOW TABLES;" to view a list of tables in the selected database.

5. Type "DESCRIBE table_name;" to view the structure of a specific table in the database.

Alternatively, you can use a MySQL GUI tool, such as phpMyAdmin or MySQL Workbench, to view the database and its contents in a graphical interface.

Numeric Data Types in MySQL

In MySQL, there are several Numeric Data Types available which are:


  • INT

Each of these types is used to store different numeric values with varying ranges and precision. For example, TINYINT can store integers from -128 to 127 while DECIMAL can store decimal values with high precision. It's important to choose the appropriate data type based on what kind of data you'll be storing.

String Data Types in MySQL

In MySQL, there are various string data types that can be used to store character data. Some of the commonly used string data types are:

- VARCHAR(n): This data type is used to store variable-length character strings with a maximum length of 'n' characters. - TEXT: This data type is used to store larger strings of up to 65,535 characters. - CHAR(n): This data type is used to store fixed-length character strings with a length of 'n' characters. - ENUM: This data type is used to store one value from a predefined set of values. - SET: This data type is used to store multiple values from a predefined set of values.

Temporal Data Types in MySQL

MySQL supports several temporal data types that capture date and time values. These include:


: for date values in the format YYYY-MM-DD.


: for time values in the format HH:MM:SS.


: for date and time values in the format 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS'.


: for date and time values in the format 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS'. It has a range of 1970-01-01 00:00:01 UTC to 2038-01-19 03:14:07 UTC.


: for year values in the format YYYY.
By using these temporal data types, we can capture and manipulate date and time values in our MySQL database.

Understanding BLOB in MySQL

In MySQL, a BLOB (Binary Large Object) is a data type that can be used for storing large amounts of binary data, such as images, audio, and video files. BLOBs are typically used in database applications where it is necessary to store and retrieve large binary files.

Unlike other data types in MySQL, BLOBs can store variable-length binary data up to a maximum size of 65,535 bytes per row. If you need to store larger files, you can use the LONGBLOB data type, which can store up to 4GB of data.

To create a BLOB column in a MySQL table, you need to specify the BLOB data type when creating the column. Once the column is created, you can insert binary data into the column using an appropriate client program or SQL command.

It is important to note that storing large amounts of binary data in a database can have significant performance implications, particularly when it comes to queries and backups. It is generally recommended to store binary data outside of the database and use a file system to manage the files instead. However, there may be scenarios where storing binary data in the database is necessary, such as when using a shared hosting environment or when security concerns outweigh performance concerns.

Adding Users in MySQL

To add users into MySQL, follow these steps:

  1. Log into the MySQL shell as the root user using the command "mysql -u root -p".
  2. Create a new MySQL user using the command:
CREATE USER 'username'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
  • Replace 'username' and 'password' with the name and password you want to use for the new user.
  • The new user is created with access only from localhost.
  • If you want to allow the new user to access MySQL from any host, replace 'localhost' with '%'. For example:
CREATE USER 'username'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
  1. Grant privileges to the new user using the command "GRANT".
  2. For example, to grant all privileges to the new user for all databases, use the command:
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON * . * TO 'username'@'localhost';
  • If you want to grant privileges to the new user for a specific database, use the command:
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON database_name.* TO 'username'@'localhost';
  1. After granting privileges, reload the privileges table using the command:

That's it! You have successfully added a new user in MySQL.

Intermediate MySQL Interview Questions

Question 21: What are MySQL views?


A view in MySQL is a virtual table that is based on the result set of an SQL statement. It is similar to a stored procedure, but is limited to SELECT statements only. Views are used to simplify the way complex queries are executed, and also to hide the complexity of underlying database schema. They provide an additional layer of security by allowing users to access data through the view without giving them permission to access the underlying tables directly.

Creating and Executing Views in MySQL

To create a view in MySQL, you can use the CREATE VIEW statement followed by the view name and the SELECT statement that defines the view. For example:

CREATE VIEW products_view AS
SELECT name, price
FROM products
WHERE status = 'available';

This statement creates a view called "products_view" that selects the "name" and "price" columns from the "products" table where the "status" is "available".

To execute a view in MySQL, you can simply use a SELECT statement that references the view name, just like you would with a table. For example:

SELECT * FROM products_view;

This statement will display all columns and rows in the "products_view" view.

Views are useful when you want to simplify complex queries or restrict access to certain columns of a table. They can also be used to save commonly used queries for easy access.

MYSQL Triggers

MYSQL triggers are database objects that are associated with a table and executed automatically in response to specific data changing events. These events may include insertions, deletions, and updates. MYSQL triggers are defined using SQL statements, which are executed whenever the specified trigger event occurs. By using triggers, you can enforce database constraints, validate input data, and perform other operations that are necessary to maintain data integrity.

Number of Triggers Possible in MySQL

In MySQL, up to 6 triggers can be defined for each table. These triggers can be either BEFORE or AFTER triggers, and can be set to activate on INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE events. Therefore, the total number of possible triggers in MySQL is 18 (6 triggers x 3 events).

What is MySQL Server?

MySQL Server is a commonly used open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). It is a software program that allows users to manage and store data in databases. MySQL Server uses SQL (Structured Query Language) for managing and manipulating data within tables and databases. It is widely used for web applications and can be installed on various operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.

Overview of MySQL Clients and Utilities

In MySQL, clients and utilities refer to tools that you can use to interact with MySQL server for various purposes. Some of the commonly used clients and utilities are:



: A command-line interface used to connect to MySQL server, execute queries, and perform other database-related tasks.



: A utility used to generate logical backups of MySQL database, that is, a file containing SQL statements that can be used to recreate the database at a later time.



: A utility used to perform administrative tasks such as starting and stopping the MySQL server, creating and deleting databases, and managing user accounts.



: A utility used to load data from text files into a MySQL table.



: A utility used to display information about the databases and tables in a MySQL server.

There are several other clients and utilities available, and they can be helpful for managing and interacting with MySQL databases efficiently.H3. Types of Relationships in MySQL

In MySQL, there are three types of relationships that can be used to connect tables in a database:

1. One-to-One Relationship: This is when one record in a table corresponds to only one record in another table.

2. One-to-Many Relationship: This is when one record in a table corresponds to multiple records in another table.

3. Many-to-Many Relationship: This is when multiple records in one table correspond to multiple records in another table, creating a connection between all of the records.

To establish these relationships, foreign keys are used in the related tables. By setting up primary and foreign key constraints, it ensures that the data is consistent and accurate across the tables in the database.

Advanced MySQL Interview Questions

Question 28:

Can you explain the logical architecture of MySQL?

MySQL logical architecture is based on the client/server model where the client is any application that requires access to the database, and the server is the MySQL database itself. 

The client sends queries to the server, and the server processes them to extract the requested data from its storage engine. Once the server has the data, it sends it back to the client where it can be processed and displayed.

MySQL has a modular architecture that allows it to be easily extended with plugins and storage engines. At its core, the MySQL server consists of several modules such as the connection handler, parser, optimizer, execution engine, and storage engine interface. Each module performs a specific function and interacts with other modules to process queries and manage data.</p>

<p>In summary, the MySQL logical architecture is a client/server model with a modular design that allows for easy extension and customization.</p>

Scaling in MySQL

Scaling in MySQL refers to the process of increasing or decreasing the database system's capacity to handle more users, data, and transactions. This is typically accomplished by adding or removing hardware resources such as additional servers or storage devices. Additionally, software optimizations can also be made to improve performance and scalability. The goal of scaling a MySQL database is to ensure that it can handle increased demand and maintain optimal performance levels.

Sharding in SQL

Sharding in SQL refers to the process of horizontally partitioning data in a database into multiple smaller and more manageable pieces called shards. Each shard contains a subset of the data from the original database and can be stored on separate servers or nodes. Sharding is used to improve database scalability and performance, as it allows for distributing the workload across multiple servers, making it possible to handle large volumes of data and transactions in a more efficient manner.

Explaining Transaction Storage Engines in MySQL

In MySQL, a transaction storage engine is responsible for handling transactions within the database. It determines how the database transactions are managed, committed, or rolled back.

MySQL offers several transaction storage engines, including InnoDB, NDB, and MyISAM. Out of these, InnoDB is the most commonly used engine because of its performance, reliability, and ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) compliance.

Transaction storage engines allow multiple transactions to occur simultaneously without interfering with each other, ensuring data integrity and consistency. They ensure that changes made during a transaction are either committed entirely or not at all, thus preventing partially completed transactions from impacting the database.

Using the appropriate transaction storage engine for your application is crucial for ensuring database reliability and data consistency.


The conclusion of the study will be presented in this section.

Please provide more information or context to generate a complete conclusion.

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