2023's Top Java Multithreading Interview Questions - InterviewBit

Multithreading in Java: Benefits and Importance

Multithreading in Java refers to the ability of a CPU to execute multiple threads simultaneously while sharing the process resources. It is an essential feature of Java, allowing the subdivision of a program into two or more threads to facilitate faster and easier execution.

Multithreading is crucial for efficient utilization of the CPU time. It enables the user to perform multiple tasks concurrently, thus improving the responsiveness of the application. Additionally, multithreading can increase the throughput and speed of an application, particularly in modern processors, where multi-core CPUs are the norm.

Sample Interview Question:

1. What are the benefits of using multithreading?

Multithreading allows for concurrent execution of multiple tasks, which can improve the responsiveness, throughput, and speed of the application. It can also help in reducing development effort, as dividing the program into threads makes it easier to maintain and debug. However, multithreaded programming requires careful synchronization, which can be challenging.

What is a Thread in Java?

A thread in Java is a unit of execution that enables a program to run multiple operations concurrently. It allows multiple parts of a program to be executed at the same time, thereby improving the program's performance. Threads can be created by extending the Thread class or implementing the Runnable interface in Java.

// Example of creating a thread by extending the Thread class:
class MyThread extends Thread {
  public void run() {
    // Code to be executed in this thread

// Example of creating a thread by implementing the Runnable interface:
class MyRunnable implements Runnable {
  public void run() {
    // Code to be executed in this thread

// Starting a thread using the above examples:
MyThread thread1 = new MyThread();

MyRunnable runnable = new MyRunnable();
Thread thread2 = new Thread(runnable);

Two Ways to Implement Threads in Java

In Java, threads can be implemented in two ways: by extending the Thread class or by implementing the Runnable interface. Extending the Thread class requires overriding the run() method and starting the thread using the start() method. Implementing the Runnable interface requires implementing the run() method and passing an instance of the class to a Thread object, which is then started. Both methods have their own advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific use case.

Thread vs Process: What's the Difference?

In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed by one or many threads. A thread is a unit of execution within a process. The main difference between a thread and a process is that a process has its own memory space, while a thread does not. In a multi-threaded program, multiple threads can access the same memory address space and share information with each other, while in a multi-process program, each process has its own memory address space and cannot share information directly with other processes.

// Example of threading in Python
import threading

def print_numbers():
    for i in range(10):

def print_letters():
    for letter in 'abcdefghij':

if __name__ == '__main__':
    t1 = threading.Thread(target=print_numbers)
    t2 = threading.Thread(target=print_letters)



In the example above, we define two functions: print_numbers and print_letters. We then create two threads, one for each function, and start them. Both threads will run in parallel, with the output intermixed. The join() method is used to wait for the threads to finish before the main program exits.

Understanding the Difference between Class Lock and Object Lock in Java

In Java, a lock refers to a synchronization mechanism used to control access to shared resources. There are two types of locks in Java: Class Lock and Object Lock.

Class Lock is a lock that is acquired on a class instead of an instance. It is used to ensure that only one thread can execute a static synchronized method of a class at a time, irrespective of the number of objects of that class is created.

On the other hand, an Object Lock is a lock acquired on an instance of a class. It means that if there are multiple threads operating on different instances, they can concurrently execute methods unless they are synchronized. Therefore, it is used to make sure that only one thread can execute a synchronized method of an instance at a time.

In summary, the primary difference between Class Lock and Object Lock is that Class Lock is acquired on a class and restricts access to all static synchronized methods in that class, whereas Object Lock is acquired on an instance of a class and only restricts access to the synchronized methods of that specific instance.

Understanding the Difference Between User Threads and Daemon Threads

User threads and daemon threads are two types of threads used in Java programming. The key difference between the two is that user threads keep the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running even if all the user threads have completed their execution, while daemon threads do not prevent the JVM from exiting if all user threads have completed their execution.

User threads are used for tasks that are essential for an application and need to be completed before the application can terminate. On the other hand, daemon threads are used for tasks that are not essential for an application and can be terminated immediately without causing any harm to the application.

In Java, user threads are created using the Thread class, while daemon threads are created using the setDaemon() method of the Thread class. User threads are terminated when their run() method completes, while daemon threads are terminated when the application exits.

It is important to note that daemon threads should not be used for tasks that require data integrity or consistency. If a daemon thread is interrupted while performing such tasks, it can lead to serious issues in the application.

Creating Daemon Threads in Java

In Java, we can create daemon threads by using the setDaemon() method. This method is called on a Thread object before it is started. A daemon thread will run in the background and will not prevent the JVM from shutting down if all the other threads have terminated.

Here's an example of creating a daemon thread:

Thread daemonThread = new Thread(() -> {
    //code to be executed by the daemon thread
daemonThread.setDaemon(true); //setting the thread as daemon
daemonThread.start(); //starting the thread

Note that once a thread is started, its daemon status cannot be changed. Therefore, the setDaemon() method must be called before starting the thread.

Explanation of wait() and sleep() methods

In Java, wait() and sleep() are both methods used to pause the execution of a thread. However, they are used in different contexts.

The wait() method is used when a thread needs to wait for another thread to complete its task before moving forward with its own execution. This method is usually used in a synchronization context with the notify() or notifyAll() methods. When wait() is called, the thread is put on hold and added to a wait set. It remains in this set until it is notified by another thread, or until a specific amount of time has passed.

The sleep() method, on the other hand, is used when a thread needs to pause its execution for a specified amount of time. It does not depend on any other thread and can be used outside of synchronization blocks. When sleep() is called, the thread is put on hold for the specified number of milliseconds and then resumes its execution afterwards.

Both methods are useful in different scenarios, and it is important to use them correctly to ensure smooth execution of Java programs.

Notification methods in Java threads: notify() vs notifyAll()

The `notify()` and `notifyAll()` methods are used in Java threads for inter-thread communication. Both methods are used to wake up threads that are waiting for a shared resource, but there are some differences between them.

`notify()` method is used to wake up one arbitrary thread that is waiting for the shared resource. The woke up thread then checks the condition on which it was waiting. If the condition is not satisfied, it again goes into the wait queue.

On the other hand, the `notifyAll()` method wakes up all the threads that are waiting for the shared resource. Then they all again compete for the lock, and only one of them gets it, and the rest once again go into the wait queue.

It is recommended to use `notifyAll()` instead of `notify()` in most cases, to avoid any chances of missed signals. However, if there is only one thread waiting for the resource and waking up any other thread is unnecessary, then `notify()` can be used.


synchronized(lockObject) { // perform some operation on shared resource lockObject.notifyAll(); // wakes up all threads waiting on lockObject }

Note: The code should always be placed in a synchronized block to avoid any race conditions.

Purpose of wait(), notify(), and notifyAll() methods in Object class

In the Object class, the wait(), notify(), and notifyAll() methods serve as a means of synchronization between threads. They allow threads to communicate with each other while performing concurrent operations. The wait() method causes a thread to wait until it is notified by another thread. The notify() method is used to wake up a single waiting thread, while the notifyAll() method wakes up all waiting threads. These methods are important for controlling the execution of threads and ensuring that they do not interfere with each other.

Runnable and Callable Interface in Java: Differences

In Java, the Runnable and Callable interfaces are used for executing tasks in separate threads. The main difference between these two interfaces is that Runnable's run() method does not return a value, while Callable's call() method returns a value.

Here's a quick breakdown of the key differences:

1. Return type: Runnable's run() method returns void, while Callable's call() method returns an Object.

2. Exception handling: Runnable's run() method does not declare any checked exceptions, while Callable's call() method must handle or declare checked exceptions.

3. Threading: Runnable is used for simple, lightweight tasks, while Callable is used when the task may take longer or needs to return a result.

4. Usage: Runnable is typically used with the Thread class, while Callable is used with the ExecutorService interface.

In general, if you need to perform a simple, non-blocking task, use the Runnable interface. If you need a result from the task or want to deal with exceptions, use the Callable interface.

Explanation of the start() and run() methods in the Thread class

In the Java programming language, the Thread class is used for creating and managing threads. The start() method is a member function of the Thread class and is used for starting a new thread of execution. When called, the start() method creates a new thread and executes the code in the run() method in a separate thread of execution.

The run() method is where the actual code executed by the thread is placed. When the start() method is called, the run() method is automatically executed on the new thread of execution. It is important to note that the run() method must be overridden by the programmer in order to implement the desired behavior for the thread.

In summary, the start() method is used to create a new thread and initiate its execution, while the run() method is where the actual code executed by the thread is placed.

Thread Pool Explanation

In computing, a thread pool is a group of pre-initialized threads that are available to execute concurrent tasks. Once a thread completes its task, it returns to the pool and waits for another task to be assigned. This approach reduces the overhead that is associated with thread creation, as threads can be reused instead of being destroyed and recreated each time a new task is assigned. Thread pools are commonly used in server applications, where multiple client requests must be handled concurrently. By using a thread pool, the server can limit the number of concurrent threads and avoid the performance degradation that can occur when too many threads are created.

Purpose of the join() method

The join() method is used to combine the elements of an iterable, such as a list or tuple, into a single string with a specified delimiter. The resulting string can be used for various purposes such as printing, writing to a file, or sending data over a network. It is a common string manipulation method used in Python programming.

What is Garbage Collection in Programming?

Garbage Collection is an automatic memory management process used in programming languages. It is responsible for automatically freeing up memory that is no longer being used by the program. This process helps prevent memory leaks and makes programming more efficient and less prone to errors. Essentially, it keeps track of which blocks of memory are in use and which are not, and then frees up those that are no longer needed. This way, the program does not hold onto unnecessary memory, which can cause system performance issues.

Explanation of Deadlock and When it Can Occur

A deadlock is a situation in which two or more processes are unable to continue executing because each is waiting for the other to finish or release resources. In other words, it's a state where no progress is made because two or more processes are unable to proceed further.

Deadlock can occur in a concurrent system when each process acquires a resource but is unable to release it. This may happen when a process requests a resource that is already being used by another process and that process, in turn, is waiting for a resource held by the first process. Both processes will be blocked forever, causing a deadlock.

Additionally, a deadlock can occur when there is a circular wait. In this scenario, each process in the circular chain is waiting for a resource that is held by the next process in that chain, causing a deadlock as none of the processes are able to proceed further.

Explanation of Volatile variables in Java

In Java, the


keyword is used to indicate that a variable's value may change unexpectedly at any time. This means that the value of a volatile variable can be modified by different threads at the same time and can be read from or written to main memory.

When a variable is not declared as volatile, its value may be cached in a thread's local memory, which can cause inconsistencies when other threads modify the value. However, when a variable is marked as volatile, all changes to its value are immediately visible to all threads, guaranteeing thread-safe operations.

It is important to note that the volatile keyword does not provide atomicity or mutual exclusion, which means that the


keyword is still necessary for operations that require atomicity or mutual exclusion.

Overall, the use of volatile variables in Java is important for ensuring thread safety and consistent behavior in multithreaded environments.

How do threads communicate with each other?

In multi-threaded programming, communication between threads is essential for proper coordination and synchronization of tasks. There are several ways for threads to communicate with each other, such as:

  1. Using shared memory: Threads can communicate with each other by sharing the same memory space and accessing shared variables. This method requires proper synchronization to avoid data races and other concurrency issues.
  2. Message passing: Threads can communicate by sending messages to each other over channels or network sockets, for example. This method allows for better isolation between threads and easier error handling.
  3. Synchronization constructs: Threads can communicate using synchronization primitives such as locks, semaphores, and barriers. These allow for mutual exclusion and proper sequencing of tasks.

The choice of communication method depends on the specific requirements and constraints of the application. It is important to ensure proper synchronization and error handling to avoid race conditions and deadlocks.

Can Two Threads Execute Two Methods (Static and Non-Static) Concurrently?

Yes, two threads can execute two methods (static and non-static) concurrently in a multi-threaded environment. However, care should be taken when accessing shared resources to avoid race conditions and other synchronization issues. It's important to properly synchronize access to shared resources using locks or other thread-safe mechanisms to ensure correct results and prevent unexpected behavior.

Purpose of the finalize() Method

The `finalize()` method is a special method in Java that is called by the garbage collector when an object is no longer referenced and needs to be cleaned up. Its purpose is to perform any final cleanup actions for an object before it is deleted from memory. This method is typically used to release any external resources that the object may have acquired, such as open files or network connections. It is important to note that the `finalize()` method may not always be called, and there is no guarantee as to when it will be called. Therefore, any critical cleanup actions should be handled separately to ensure that they are always performed when necessary.

Multithreading Interview Questions for Experienced Java Developers

Question 21: What is the process of synchronization and why is it used?

  Synchronization is the process of controlling the access to shared resources in a multithreaded environment. It ensures that only one thread can access the shared resource at a time, preventing race conditions and inconsistent data. Synchronization is used to maintain thread safety and prevent deadlock from occurring when multiple threads are accessing the same resource simultaneously.

Synchronized Method vs Synchronized Block

In Java, a synchronized method is a method that is locked whenever a thread executes it. A synchronized block, on the other hand, is a block of code that is locked by a monitor object.

Synchronized methods are more convenient to use, but they may lead to contention if the lock is held for an extended period of time. Synchronized blocks, on the other hand, are more flexible and can help in cases where finer-grained control over locking is needed.

In general, it is recommended to use synchronized blocks instead of synchronized methods, as they offer better control over locking and minimize contention. However, the choice between the two ultimately depends on the requirements of the individual use case.

Thread Starvation

Thread starvation is a scenario in multithreading where a particular thread is unable to acquire necessary resources and thus cannot progress. This can occur due to various reasons such as improper resource allocation, faulty logic, or low resource availability. When a thread is starved, it can lead to a deadlock or other synchronization issues. It is important to design thread-safe code to prevent thread starvation and ensure efficient multithreading.

Livelock: Definition and Consequences

Livelock is a situation in which two or more processes continuously change their states in response to changes made by the other processes, without making any actual progress in their task. This results in a deadlock-like situation, where each process is stuck and unable to complete its work.

Livelock can occur in a distributed system when multiple processes are competing for the same resources, such as a shared database or a shared file. Each process can access the resource, but before it can complete its task, another process requests access to the same resource and it must then wait. This waiting continues indefinitely, as new requests for the resource come in, causing a never-ending cycle of waiting and releasing resources.

The consequences of livelock can be severe for an application or system, as it can lead to a complete halt of all processes involved. This can result in a loss of data, decreased productivity, and a negative impact on the user experience. Therefore, it is important to detect and resolve livelock as soon as possible to ensure the continued functioning of the system.

What is BlockingQueue?

BlockingQueue is an interface in Java that represents a queue that is thread-safe and can be used in the implementation of producer-consumer type problems. It provides additional methods that can be used in situations where one needs to block the operation of queues until either space becomes available for adding elements or elements become available for removal. This interface is primarily used in multi-threaded applications for sharing data between producer and consumer threads.

Starting a Thread Twice in Java

Yes, it is possible to start a thread twice in Java, but it is not recommended and can have unpredictable results. Once a thread has completed its execution, it cannot be started again. If an attempt is made to start a completed thread, a runtime exception will occur.

To avoid this situation, it is recommended to create a new instance of the thread and start that instead of re-using the same instance. This ensures that the thread is in a valid state before starting it again.


//Create a new instance of the thread
Thread thread = new Thread(new MyRunnable());

//Start the thread

//Wait for the thread to complete
try {
} catch (InterruptedException e) {

//Create a new instance of the thread and start it again
thread = new Thread(new MyRunnable());

In the above code example, we create a new instance of the thread and start it. After the thread has completed, we create another instance of the thread and start that instead of reusing the previous instance. This ensures that the thread is in a valid state before starting it again.

Explanation of Context Switching

Context switching is the process of saving and restoring the state of a CPU during the execution of a process so that it can resume its execution from the same point later. This is necessary because the CPU can only execute one process at a time, and there are usually more processes running in the system than there are CPUs available to execute them.

When a process is running on a CPU, the CPU is executing the instructions and accessing the system resources required by that process. During a context switch, the CPU saves the current state of the process, which includes the contents of the CPU registers and the memory pages being used by the process. The CPU then loads the state of the next process that needs to run and begins executing its instructions.

Context switching is an important part of the operating system's job because it allows the system to multiplex the CPU among multiple processes to increase system utilization and ensure fairness in resource allocation. However, context switching also introduces overhead because it requires the CPU to perform additional tasks to save and restore the state of each process which can slow down the overall performance of the system.

CyclicBarrier and CountDownLatch in Java

In Java, CyclicBarrier and CountDownLatch are both classes in the java.util.concurrent package that help with implementing synchronization in multi-threaded programs.

CyclicBarrier: This class allows a set of threads to wait for each other to reach a particular point of execution before proceeding further. CyclicBarrier can be used when multiple threads are working on independent tasks and are required to wait for each other to finish before they can proceed.

CountDownLatch: This class allows one or more threads to wait for a set of operations to complete before proceeding. A CountDownLatch is initialized with a count, and each thread that needs to wait for the operations to complete decrements the count. When the count reaches zero, the waiting threads are released.

Both CyclicBarrier and CountDownLatch are useful in situations where you have multiple threads that need to coordinate with each other in order to complete a job.

Inter-Thread Communication Explained

Inter-thread communication refers to the methods through which threads communicate with each other in a multi-threading environment. In simple terms, it enables one thread to pass data to another thread while they are executing concurrently. Inter-thread communication can be achieved through shared memory, message passing, or synchronization mechanisms.

In shared memory, threads share a common memory space where data can be exchanged between them. Message passing involves using message queues or sockets to send messages between threads. Synchronization mechanisms like locks, semaphores, and condition variables can also be used to ensure that threads communicate and coordinate their actions properly.

Inter-thread communication is important in multi-threaded applications as it helps to avoid issues such as race conditions, deadlocks, and other synchronization problems that can occur when several threads are accessing the same resources concurrently.

Thread Scheduler and Time Slicing

In a multitasking operating system, a thread scheduler is responsible for handling the scheduling of threads. The thread scheduler decides which thread to run or execute next, based on certain algorithms.

Time slicing refers to the technique of dividing the available CPU time between multiple threads that are ready to run. The scheduler assigns a time slice or quantum of CPU time to each thread, and once the time slice is up, the scheduler stops the current thread and switches to the next one. This ensures that all threads get a fair share of CPU time and prevents any thread from monopolizing the CPU.

Explanation of Shutdown Hooks

A shutdown hook is a mechanism in Java that allows developers to execute some specific code before the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) shuts down. This functionality is useful if you need to perform some cleanup actions, save data, or prevent data loss before your program or application closes. You can add a shutdown hook by registering a thread with the JVM using the


method. When the JVM starts the shutdown sequence, all registered threads will be executed. It's important to note that shutdown hooks have a limited amount of time to complete their execution, so they should not be used for time-consuming tasks.

Explanation of Busy Spinning

Busy spinning is a programming technique where a thread of execution continuously checks for a particular condition or event instead of blocking or waiting for it to occur. This technique is often used in hardware device drivers or real-time systems where blocking can cause significant delays or missed deadlines. Instead of wasting CPU cycles on waiting, the program uses busy spinning to maximize CPU usage. However, busy spinning can also result in high CPU usage and can cause other processes to slow down. Therefore, it is important to use it sparingly and only when necessary.

Understanding ConcurrentHashMap and Hashtable in Java

In Java, ConcurrentHashMap and Hashtable are both data structures used for storing key-value pairs. However, ConcurrentHashMap is considered faster than Hashtable due to its implementation.

ConcurrentHashMap uses a technique called lock striping, where the underlying data structure is divided into several partitions and each partition is locked separately instead of locking the entire data structure. This allows multiple threads to access different partitions at the same time, thereby improving performance.

On the other hand, Hashtable locks the entire data structure when any modification is made, causing other threads to wait until the lock is released. This can lead to slower performance in a multi-threaded environment.

Additionally, ConcurrentHashMap allows concurrent reads and writes, whereas Hashtable does not allow concurrent writes. This makes ConcurrentHashMap a better choice in scenarios where there are frequent modifications to the data structure.

Overall, ConcurrentHashMap is considered faster and more efficient in a multi-threaded environment compared to Hashtable.

Explanation of Thread Priority

Thread priority is a concept in computer programming that determines the level of importance or urgency that should be assigned to a particular thread relative to other threads running in a program. Essentially, thread priority is used to ensure that the threads with the most critical tasks and functions are given access to the necessary system resources and CPU time they need to execute their tasks efficiently.

In most modern operating systems, thread priority is typically assigned as a number or value, ranging from 1 to 10. The exact value of thread priority will vary depending on the specific system and programming language being used, but generally, the higher the priority value, the more important the thread is considered to be.

When multiple threads are running simultaneously in a program, the scheduler of the operating system will use the assigned priority values to decide how to allocate system resources and CPU time. Threads with higher priority values will generally be given access to system resources and CPU time before those with lower priority values. However, it's important to note that thread priority is not an exact science, and factors such as the number of threads running, the type and complexity of each thread's tasks, and the amount of available system resources can all affect how thread priority is ultimately handled and used by the system.

Therefore, while thread priority can certainly be a helpful tool for managing system resources and ensuring critical tasks are prioritized appropriately, it's important to use it wisely and in conjunction with other tools, such as thread synchronization and inter-thread communication, to create safe, efficient, and reliable multithreaded programs.

Explanation of the ThreadLocal variable in Java

In Java, the ThreadLocal class provides a way to create variables that are only accessible by a specific thread. Each thread that accesses the ThreadLocal variable has its own, independently initialized copy of the variable. This means that changes made to the variable by one thread do not affect its value in another thread.

ThreadLocal variables are useful when implementing multi-threaded applications where each thread requires its own state information that should not be shared with other threads. They can also be used to improve performance in certain situations by reducing the need for synchronization.

To use a ThreadLocal variable, simply define a new instance of the class and access it using the get() and set() methods. For example:

ThreadLocal<String> threadLocal = new ThreadLocal<>();
String value = threadLocal.get();

In this example, each thread that accesses the `threadLocal` variable will have its own copy of the `value` variable, initialized to `"example"`.

What is a Semaphore?

A semaphore is a synchronization tool used in computer programming to control access to a shared resource. It is a variable that acts like a lock, which allows only a certain number of threads to access a resource simultaneously. Semaphores can be binary (only 0 or 1) or counting (0 to n) and are typically used in multi-threaded environments to prevent race conditions and ensure thread-safe access to shared resources.

Explanation of Thread Group and Reasons to Avoid Using It

In software testing, a thread group is a feature of JMeter that allows users to simulate concurrent user load on a web application. Thread groups enable testers to specify the number of threads or virtual users that should be created and the ramp-up time for those threads. However, thread groups can often result in performance issues, such as high CPU and memory usage, and should be avoided in certain scenarios.

One of the main reasons to avoid using thread groups is that they can create unrealistic testing scenarios. For example, if the specified number of threads is too high, it can overload the server and cause it to crash. Additionally, thread groups do not accurately simulate real-world user behavior, as they do not take into account factors such as user think time and network latency.

Another reason to avoid using thread groups is that they limit the scalability of performance testing. Thread groups do not allow testers to easily scale the load up or down, as they require changes to be made to each thread individually. This can be time-consuming and inefficient, especially for large-scale tests.

Instead of using thread groups, testers can use alternatives such as the Stepping Thread Group or the Ultimate Thread Group, which offer more flexible and scalable load testing options. Alternatively, testers can use third-party tools or scripting languages to create more realistic and customizable load testing scenarios.

What is the ExecutorService interface?

The ExecutorService interface is a subinterface of the Executor interface in the Java programming language. It provides a way to manage and control asynchronous task execution in a more organized and efficient manner. The main advantage of using ExecutorService is that it allows us to reuse threads, thus saving system resources and improving performance. It also provides methods for controlling the execution of tasks, such as determining if a task has completed or cancelling an ongoing task. Overall, ExecutorService is a powerful tool for managing tasks in multithreaded applications.

Consequences of not Overriding the Run Method in the Thread Class

If we don't override the run method in the Thread class, the default run method of the Thread class will be executed when we start the thread. This default method does not perform any tasks, so the thread will not do anything meaningful. Therefore, it is necessary to override the run method to provide custom functionality to the thread.

Lock interface vs synchronized block

In Java, the Lock interface provides an alternative to the synchronized block for controlling access to a shared resource. The Lock interface is part of the java.util.concurrent package and offers several advantages over the traditional synchronized block:

1. Explicit control: With Lock, you can explicitly acquire and release the lock, which gives you more fine-grained control over synchronization.

2. Support for multiple conditions: Lock allows you to have multiple wait/notify conditions associated with a single lock, which can simplify certain synchronization patterns.

3. Better performance: Lock is generally faster than synchronized, especially in high-contention scenarios.

4. Interruptible: Lock provides a way to interrupt a thread waiting on a lock, whereas synchronized blocks do not.

Overall, the Lock interface provides a more flexible and powerful way to control access to shared resources in Java. However, it does require more code and can be more error-prone than synchronized blocks if not used carefully.

Can the run() method be directly called to start a new thread?

In Java, calling the run() method directly will not start a new thread. Instead, it will execute the code as a normal method call in the calling thread. To start a new thread, you need to call the start() method on an instance of the Thread class. This will create a new thread of execution and call the run() method in that new thread.

Can Each Thread Have its Own Stack in Multithreaded Programming?

In multithreaded programming, it is indeed possible for each thread to have its own stack. In fact, each thread in a program has its own independent stack. This allows for the concurrent execution of multiple threads, each with its own call stack.


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