Top MongoDB Interview Questions You Must Know in 2023 - Interviewbit

Introduction to MongoDB

In dealing with data, there are two categories known to us - structured data and unstructured data. Structured data is usually stored in a tabular form, whereas unstructured data is not. To manage vast sets of unstructured data such as log or IoT data, a NoSQL database is used.

So, what exactly is MongoDB?


• MongoDB is an open-source NoSQL database that is written in C++ language. It uses JSON-like documents with optional schemas.
• It provides easy scalability and is a cross-platform, document-oriented database.
• MongoDB works based on the concept of Collection and Document.
• It combines the ability to scale out with features such as secondary indexes, range queries, sorting, aggregations, and geospatial indexes.
• MongoDB is developed by MongoDB Inc. and licensed under the Server Side Public License (SSPL).

MongoDB Basic Interview Questions

1. What are some of the advantages of MongoDB?

Understanding Documents in MongoDB

In MongoDB, a document is the basic unit of data storage. It is a JSON-like data structure that stores data in a key-value format. Each document represents a single record in the database and can contain multiple fields with values. Documents in MongoDB are similar to the rows in a traditional relational database, but with more flexibility and scalability.

Documents in MongoDB are stored in collections, which are groupings of related documents. MongoDB does not enforce a schema, meaning that the fields and data types can vary between documents within the same collection. This makes MongoDB a popular choice for serverless architectures, microservices, and other modern application development environments where data schema can evolve frequently.

Overall, understanding documents is essential for working with MongoDB. They allow for a flexible and scalable approach to data storage, and can be easily manipulated using MongoDB's rich query language and powerful aggregation framework.

What is a Collection in MongoDB?

In MongoDB, a collection is a group of MongoDB documents that are stored together and can be accessed by the MongoDB query language. It can be thought of as a table in a relational database, but unlike a table, it does not enforce a specific schema or structure on the documents stored within it. Collections in MongoDB are dynamic and allow for documents to have fields that are not defined in a collection's schema.

Introduction to Databases in MongoDB

In MongoDB, a database is a container for collections. A collection is equivalent to a table in a relational database. Each collection contains documents, which are equivalent to rows in a relational database. MongoDB uses JSON-like documents with optional schemas. It allows for flexible and dynamic data structures that can be easily changed as requirements evolve. The document format is compatible with many programming languages, making it easy to work with for developers. Overall, MongoDB's database structure is designed for scalability, performance, and flexibility.

What is the Mongo Shell?

The Mongo Shell is a command-line interface that allows users to interact with the MongoDB database. It provides a variety of powerful features for managing and querying data, including CRUD operations, database administration, and data analysis. The Mongo Shell also supports JavaScript, which allows for the creation of complex scripts and automation of tasks. With its intuitive interface and versatile functionality, the Mongo Shell is an essential tool for any developer working with MongoDB.

Scalability in MongoDB: How Does Scale-Out Work?

In MongoDB, scale-out is achieved through sharding, which is a method of dividing a large dataset into smaller partitions called shards. Each shard is then distributed across different servers in a cluster. This allows for horizontal scaling, where more servers can be added to the cluster as needed to handle increased demand and growing datasets.

When a client sends a read or write request to the database, a query router (mongos) processes the request and determines which shard(s) to query based on the shard key. The query router then sends the request to the appropriate shard(s) and aggregates the results before returning them to the client.

Adding a new shard to the cluster involves creating a new replica set and configuring it as a shard. The replica set is then added to the cluster and the data is redistributed across the shards to ensure even balancing of the data.

Overall, MongoDB's scale-out architecture allows for effective management of large and growing datasets while maintaining high performance and availability.

Features of MongoDB

MongoDB is a popular NoSQL database that comes with several features, some of which are:

  • Flexible data model: MongoDB uses a document-based model that makes it easy to store and retrieve data with flexible schema designs.
  • Horizontal scalability: With its sharding feature, MongoDB can divide a large database into smaller and more manageable parts, making it easy to scale horizontally as data volumes grow.
  • High performance: MongoDB is designed for high performance and can handle large volumes of data and complex queries with ease.
  • Aggregation framework: The aggregation framework in MongoDB provides a powerful set of tools for data aggregation and analysis.
  • Automatic sharding: MongoDB can automatically shard data across multiple servers, reducing the need for manual administration.
  • Native support for JSON: JSON is a popular data format for APIs, and MongoDB natively supports storing and querying JSON data.


//MongoDB Features
var mongoFeatures = {
  flexibleDataModel: true,
  horizontalScalability: true,
  highPerformance: true,
  aggregationFramework: true,
  automaticSharding: true,
  jsonSupport: true

Adding Data to MongoDB

To add data to your MongoDB database using a Node.js application, you can follow these steps:

  1. Establish a connection to your MongoDB database using the MongoClient module.
  2. Access your desired collection using the db.collection() method.
  3. Create a JavaScript object that contains the data you want to add to the collection.
  4. Insert the data object into your collection using the insertOne() or insertMany() method.

Here's an example code snippet that demonstrates how to add a single document to a MongoDB collection:

const MongoClient = require('mongodb').MongoClient;
const url = 'mongodb://localhost:27017/mydatabase';

MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
  if (err) throw err;
  const myObj = { name: "John", age: 31, city: "New York" };
  db.collection("customers").insertOne(myObj, function(err, res) {
    if (err) throw err;
    console.log("1 document inserted");

In this example, we connect to the 'mydatabase' database on our local MongoDB server and insert a new document into the 'customers' collection. The document contains a name, age, and city field. We log the number of documents inserted to the console and close the database connection.

Note that you can also use the insertMany() method to insert multiple documents at once.

How to update a document?

To update a document, you need to first retrieve the document from the database, make your desired changes, and then save the document back to the database. The specific method of updating a document will depend on the database and programming language you are using. In general, the process can be broken down into the following steps:

1. Retrieve the document: Use a query to retrieve the document from the database and store it in a variable.

2. Make changes: Modify the fields of the document as necessary.

3. Save the document: Use an update operation to save the changed document to the database.

Here is an example in Python using the pymongo library to update a document in a MongoDB database:

import pymongo

client = pymongo.MongoClient("mongodb://localhost:27017/")
db = client["mydatabase"]
col = db["mycollection"]

# Retrieve the document
query = { "name": "John" }
doc = col.find_one(query)

# Update the document
doc["age"] = 30

# Save the document
col.replace_one(query, doc)

In this example, we first retrieve a document with the name "John" from the "mycollection" collection in the "mydatabase" database. Then we modify the "age" field to be 30. Finally, we save the updated document back to the database using the `replace_one()` method.

Deleting a Document

To delete a document, you can use the DELETE method provided by the API. You will need to make a request to the specific endpoint of the document you want to delete.

For example, if your API endpoint for documents is "/api/documents/", and the document you want to delete has an ID of 1234, you would make a DELETE request to "/api/documents/1234".

Make sure you have the correct authentication and permissions to delete documents on the API. Once the request is successful, the document will be deleted from the API and no longer available for retrieval.

Performing queries in MongoDB involves using the find() method along with a search filter to retrieve specific data from a collection. The syntax for this method is:


The search filter parameter includes key-value pairs that match the criteria for the search. MongoDB also provides several query operators that allow for more advanced querying such as greater than, less than, or not equal to. Here's an example:

db.inventory.find( { qty: { $gt: 20 } } )

This query returns all documents in the inventory collection where the qty field is greater than 20.

Data Types in MongoDB

MongoDB supports various data types for storing data in a collection. These include:

  • String
  • Integer
  • Double
  • Boolean
  • Array
  • Object
  • ObjectId
  • Null
  • Date
  • Timestamp
  • Regular Expression
  • Binary Data

Each field in a MongoDB document can have a different data type. Understanding these data types is important when designing the schema for a MongoDB collection.

When to use MongoDB?

MongoDB is a NoSQL database that is generally preferred for handling large amounts of unstructured or semi-structured data. It is a good choice when you want to store data in a flexible schema-free way, retrieve data quickly, and scale horizontally by adding more servers. MongoDB is suitable for a variety of applications, such as content management, social networking, e-commerce, gaming, and analytics. Additionally, it has a strong presence in the cloud computing ecosystem and works well with modern web development technologies.

MongoDB Intermediate Interview Questions

14. Can you explain how querying works in MongoDB?

// Example query in MongoDB
db.users.find({age: {$gt: 25}});

Querying in MongoDB is done using the


method. You pass in a query document to the


method to specify the search criteria. The query document is a standard JSON document that defines one or more criteria to select documents from the collection.

The query syntax involves using operators like






, and more to compare values in the query document. For example, the above query selects all documents in the "users" collection where the "age" field is greater than 25.

Once you execute the


method, MongoDB returns a cursor object that you can iterate over to access the results of the query. You can also use various methods like






, and others to control the results returned by the query.

Explaining Indexing in MongoDB

Indexing in MongoDB is the process of creating indexes for the fields in a collection. These indexes work like a data structure, which helps in faster retrieval of data. MongoDB uses the B-tree data structure to create indexes, which provides an efficient way to search for data in a collection. By creating indexes, MongoDB can quickly filter out the documents that do not match a query, and only return the matching documents. This improves the performance of queries and makes them faster.

Indexes can be created on single fields, or on multiple fields in a collection. MongoDB supports several types of indexes, including unique indexes, text indexes, and geospatial indexes. When creating indexes, it is important to balance the performance benefits with the additional overhead of maintaining the indexes.

Overall, proper use of indexing can significantly improve the performance of MongoDB, especially for large collections with complex queries.

// Sample code for creating an index on a MongoDB collection
db.collection.createIndex( { "fieldname": 1 } );

What are Geospatial Indexes in MongoDB?

Geospatial indexes are a special type of index in MongoDB that is used to optimize queries related to the location-based data. They enable the efficient querying of the documents containing geospatial data, such as GPS coordinates or addresses. MongoDB supports two types of geospatial indexes - 2d indexes and 2dsphere indexes.

2d indexes are used to index data that is represented as flat, two-dimensional coordinate pairs, such as longitude and latitude. They can be used to query for documents based on geometric shapes such as points, lines, and polygons.

2dsphere indexes are used to index data that represents three-dimensional objects such as spheres, polygons, and circles on a curved surface. This type of index supports complex, curved geometries and more advanced queries.

By using geospatial indexes, developers can easily build location-aware applications that provide real-time information about nearby stores, events, or services.

Explaining the Process of Sharding

Sharding is the process of breaking up a large database into smaller, more manageable parts called shards.

The process of sharding involves the following steps:

1. **Partitioning the Data:** The first step in sharding is to partition the data based on a chosen partition key. The partition key is used to decide which shard the data should be stored in.

2. **Assigning Shards to Nodes:** Once the data is partitioned, the next step is to assign the shards to different nodes in the cluster. Each node is responsible for storing a specific set of shards, and all nodes together store the entire database.

3. **Balancing the Shards:** Over time, the size and usage of each shard may change. As a result, it may be necessary to rebalance the shards across different nodes to ensure that no single node becomes a bottleneck.

4. **Handling Failures:** In a sharded database, failures can occur at both the node level and the shard level. Therefore, it is important to have a robust failover mechanism in place to ensure that the database remains available in the event of a failure.

5. **Scaling the Cluster:** Sharding allows databases to scale horizontally, which means that additional nodes can be added to the cluster as needed to handle increased load. This allows databases to scale beyond the limits of a single machine and makes it possible to handle high levels of traffic without sacrificing performance.

By sharding a database, organizations can improve performance, increase scalability, and reduce the risk of data loss or corruption.

Explanation of the Set Modifier in MongoDB

In MongoDB, the '$set' modifier is used to update fields or add new fields to an existing document. It is one of many update operators available in MongoDB.

The syntax for using '$set' is as follows:

db.collection.updateOne({ <query> }, { $set: { <field1>: <value1>, <field2>: <value2>, ... } })

This will update the first document that matches the specified query with the specified field-value pairs. If no document matches the query, nothing will be updated.

If the specified fields already exist in the document, their values will be replaced. If they do not exist, new fields will be added to the document with the specified values.

For example, the following code would update the 'name' field of the first document in the 'users' collection with an '_id' of 1 to 'John Doe':

db.users.updateOne({ _id: 1 }, { $set: { name: 'John Doe' } })

It's important to note that '$set' only works on the fields specified in the update operation. Any other fields in the document will remain unchanged. If you want to replace the entire document, you should use the '$replaceOne' operator instead.

MongoDB Advanced Interview Questions

Question 19: What is the meaning of Transactions in MongoDB?



are a group of database operations that are performed as a single logical unit of work. The purpose of a transaction is to ensure data consistency, even in the event of system failures and errors. In MongoDB, transactions are supported in replica sets and sharded clusters using a multi-document ACID transaction model. This allows for multiple operations to be performed atomically, with all changes either committed or rolled back together, ensuring that the database remains in a consistent state. With transactions, you can maintain data integrity across multiple operations, such as updating multiple documents in a single transaction, or across multiple collections and databases. Transactions are essential in any database system for maintaining data consistency, and MongoDB's transaction support provides this essential functionality.

MongoDB Charts: An Overview

MongoDB Charts is a data visualization tool that allows users to create interactive charts and dashboards from their MongoDB data. It provides a simple and intuitive interface for building visualizations, and supports a wide range of chart types, including bar charts, line charts, scatter plots, and more. With MongoDB Charts, users can quickly gain insights from their data and share their findings with others.

Understanding the Aggregation Framework in MongoDB

The aggregation framework is an essential feature of MongoDB that enables users to perform sophisticated data analysis operations. It provides a quick and efficient way to extract, transform, and aggregate data from multiple collections, which can enable better decision-making processes.

In simplest terms, the aggregation framework is a data processing pipeline that uses a set of stages to transform data into the desired output. Each stage takes input from the previous one and passes it to the next stage, creating a chain reaction of data transformations until the final result is achieved.

This framework provides a powerful set of operators that allows users to extract data, group it based on specific criteria, create calculated fields, sort, and filter results. It also supports a wide range of performance and optimization features that can speed up data processing and improve efficiency.

Overall, the aggregation framework is an indispensable tool for anyone who needs to deal with large amounts of data and wants to extract valuable insights quickly and efficiently.

Concept of Pipeline in MongoDB Aggregation Framework

In MongoDB, the aggregation framework is a powerful tool that allows us to process and analyze data in various ways. The pipeline in the aggregation framework is a sequence of stages, where each stage performs a specific operation on the input documents and passes the results to the next stage.

Each stage in the pipeline provides a set of operators that can be used to perform various operations on the data. The pipeline stages can be repeated, and new stages can be added to the pipeline to further process the data.

The input documents to the pipeline can come from a collection or the output of a previous stage. The last stage in the pipeline returns the results of the aggregation operation.

Overall, the pipeline in the MongoDB aggregation framework provides a flexible and powerful way to analyze and process data in MongoDB.

What is a Replica Set in MongoDB?

In MongoDB, a Replica Set is a group of MongoDB instances that maintains the same data set. It provides redundancy and high availability, ensuring that the data remains available even in the event of node failures or network issues. A Replica Set consists of a primary node that accepts all write operations and one or more secondary nodes that replicate data from the primary node. Additionally, MongoDB allows the creation of an arbiter node, which participates in elections but does not hold any data. Replica Sets are the preferred method for handling failover and scaling in MongoDB environments.

Replication Architecture in MongoDB

MongoDB uses a replication architecture that is composed of several nodes, where each node has one primary and multiple secondary nodes. The primary node is responsible for performing all of the write operations, while the secondary nodes replicate changes made by the primary and can be used for read operations.

The replication process begins with an initial synchronization of data from the primary to the secondary nodes. During normal operation, data changes are sent to all of the secondary nodes in real-time, ensuring that they are always up-to-date.

In the event that the primary node fails or becomes unavailable, one of the secondary nodes will automatically be elected as the new primary node. This ensures that write operations can continue to be performed even if there is a failure in the system.

Overall, the replication architecture in MongoDB provides high availability and fault tolerance, ensuring that data is always accessible and up-to-date.

Utilities for Backup and Restore in MongoDB

In MongoDB, there are several utilities available for backup and restore operations.



is a utility that creates a binary export of the contents of a MongoDB instance, including all of its databases and collections. This is useful for creating backups or moving data between different environments.



is a utility that restores data previously generated by mongodump or a compatible tool.



is a utility that imports data from a JSON, CSV, or TSV file into a MongoDB collection. It is useful for importing data into a new or existing collection.



is a utility that exports the contents of a collection to a specified format, such as JSON or CSV.

All these utilities are included with MongoDB installation and can be run from the command line. It is recommended to use these utilities to perform regular backups to ensure data availability and to avoid data loss.


After analyzing the data and considering all the factors, it can be concluded that...

Additionally, future research could focus on...

Technical Interview Guides

Here are guides for technical interviews, categorized from introductory to advanced levels.

View All

Best MCQ

As part of their written examination, numerous tech companies necessitate candidates to complete multiple-choice questions (MCQs) assessing their technical aptitude.

View MCQ's
Made with love
This website uses cookies to make IQCode work for you. By using this site, you agree to our cookie policy

Welcome Back!

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign in
Recover lost password
Or log in with

Create a Free Account

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign up
Or sign up with
By signing up, you agree to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. You also agree to receive product-related marketing emails from IQCode, which you can unsubscribe from at any time.