2023 Top Linux Interview Questions and Answers - IQCode


What is Linux and What are its Features?

Linux is an open-source computer operating system that manages hardware and resources of a system, facilitating communication between software and hardware. It was first released in 1991 by Linus Torvalds and is considered more secure and faster than windows. It is freely distributable and is generally built around Linux Kernel which manages hardware resources for users. LINUX can be installed in various devices including mobiles, laptops, computers, notebooks, etc. Ubuntu, Debian, SUSE Linux, Gentoo are some of the flavors of Linux OS.

Features of Linux OS:

  • Free and Open Source: It is freely and easily available to anyone.
  • Robust and Adaptable: Linux can operate for prolonged periods without crashing and considered to have very much immune to security threats.
  • More secure: It provides security features like password authentication, security auditing, and file system access control which make it more secure.
  • Multiprogramming System: It can run multiple functions or applications simultaneously.
  • Application Support: It has its own software repository from where software can be retrieved so that users can download and install applications.
  • Supports customized keywords: Linux supports the installation of multiple languages keyboards to aid user experience.
  • GUI (Graphical User Interface): It provides an interface for users to interact with the system and to use GUI applications such as VLC, Firefox, etc.

Linux OS Internals

1. What are basic elements or components of Linux?


The basic elements or components of the Linux Operating System include:
    1. Kernel: It is the core part of the Linux system and responsible for resource management, process management, and memory management.
    2. Shell: It is the user interface to the kernel that interprets the command entered by users and executes system commands.
    3. Command: Users can enter commands in the shell to perform different functions and operations on the system.
    4. File System: Linux uses a tree-like directory structure to store, organize, and manage files and directories on the system.
    5. Applications: Linux has its own software repository that contains a vast collection of free and open-source applications that can be downloaded and installed on the system.

Understanding Kernel: Its Functions and Importance

Kernel is the core component of an operating system that manages system resources and is responsible for communication between hardware and software. It is loaded into memory during bootup and remains in the main memory until the computer is shut down. Kernel functions include:

  • Process Management: Allocating memory and processor time to processes and ensuring they run smoothly.
  • Memory Management: Allocating and deallocating memory to running processes and optimizing system performance to prevent crashes.
  • Device Management: Communicating with hardware devices such as printers, keyboards and mice to send and receive data.
  • Security: Protecting the system from unauthorized access and malicious software.

The kernel is crucial for the stability and efficiency of an operating system. It acts as a bridge between hardware and software, managing resources and ensuring that system processes run smoothly and without conflicts.

Two Types of Linux User Mode

In Linux, there are two types of user modes:

  1. User mode: This is the standard mode that most applications run in. It has limited access to the system and is primarily used for running user-level applications.
  2. Kernel mode: This mode has full access to the system and can perform any operation. It is used for system-level operations such as hardware access and system-level resource management.

Understanding Swap Space

Swap space is a portion of a hard disk drive (HDD) that is used to temporarily store inactive memory pages. When the system's random access memory (RAM) gets filled up, any additional data that needs to be loaded into memory is cached onto the hard drive in this swap space. This allows the operating system to continue functioning, even when there isn't enough physical memory available. However, because accessing data on a hard drive is much slower than accessing data on RAM, using swap space can have a significant impact on system performance.


To view the amount of swap space that is currently being used on a Linux system, you can use the "swapon" command. To add more swap space, you can create a new partition or file and then use the "mkswap" command to prepare it for use as swap space. Finally, you can activate the new swap space using the "swapon" command.

Understanding Process States in Linux

Process states in Linux refer to the various states a process can be in during its lifecycle. These states include:

  • Running: The process is currently being executed by the CPU.
  • Sleeping: The process is waiting for an event to occur (such as input/output).
  • Stopped: The process has been stopped and can be resumed later on.
  • Zombie: The process has completed execution but has not yet been cleaned up by its parent process.

Understanding these process states can help with debugging and optimizing system performance in Linux.

Understanding Linux Shell: Types of Shells in Linux

Linux Shell is a command-line interface (CLI) that allows users to interact with the Linux operating system. It is a program that interprets user commands and executes them. There are several types of shells available in Linux, including:

1. Bash (Bourne-Again SHell) - This shell is the most widely used shell in Linux distributions. It is the default shell in most Linux distributions.

2. Korn shell (ksh) - This shell is similar to the Bash shell in terms of functionality and features.

3. C shell (csh) - This shell is designed to resemble the C programming language.

4. Z shell (zsh) - This shell includes features of both the Bash and Korn shells, as well as additional features.

Each shell has its own set of features and capabilities. Users can choose a shell that best suits their needs and preferences.

Types of Modes in Vi Editor

Vi editor has different modes for editing text files. The most commonly used modes are:


Command Mode:

This is the default mode in Vi Editor and is used to perform operations such as deleting, copying, pasting, and searching in the file.


Insert Mode:

This mode is used to insert text into the file. To enter this mode, press the 'i' key in the command mode.


Replace Mode:

This mode is used to replace the existing text with the newly typed text. To enter this mode, press the 'R' key in the command mode.


Visual Mode:

This mode is used to highlight and select text in the file. To enter this mode, press the 'v' key in the command mode.


Ex Mode:

This mode is used to perform advanced editing operations such as substituting text, saving and quitting the file, and opening and closing files. To enter this mode, press ':' in the command mode.

Maximum Filename Length in Linux

In Linux, the maximum file name length is 255 characters. This includes the directory path. However, most file system limits filenames to 255 bytes excluding the path. It's important to keep this limit in mind while creating and naming files, otherwise, the file may not be recognized or accessed properly.

Name of the Linux distribution specially designed by Sun Microsystems

Sun Microsystems did not create a Linux distribution, however, they did create a Unix-based operating system called Solaris.

Typical Swap Partition Size in Linux System

In the Linux system, the typical size for swap partitions is twice the amount of physical RAM. For example, if a computer has 2GB of RAM, then the recommended swap partition size would be 4GB. However, with the availability of more RAM in modern computers, the need for larger swap partitions is significantly reduced. It's important to note that swap partitions should not exceed 2 times the amount of physical RAM, as it can lead to performance issues.

Understanding File Permissions and Types of File Systems in Linux

In Linux, file permissions dictate who can access files and to what extent. There are three types of file permissions: read, write, and execute. These permissions are set for three different types of user groups: the owner, the group, and others.

The permission types are denoted by three characters: r for read access, w for write access, and x for execute access. The owner, group, and others have their own set of these characters, in that order. The permissions can be set using the chmod command, followed by the permission values.

Linux also supports different types of file systems, each with its own set of features and benefits. Some of the commonly used file systems in Linux are:

  • Ext4: This is the default file system in most Linux distributions. It is known for its high data integrity and reliability.
  • NTFS: This file system is primarily used in Windows operating systems, but it can also be used in Linux. It is known for its speed and ability to handle large files.
  • ReiserFS: This file system is optimized for high-performance and small file sizes. However, it is not widely used due to its complexity and lack of support.
  • XFS: This is a high-performance file system that can handle large files and filesystems. It is commonly used in enterprise environments.

Overall, understanding file permissions and the different types of file systems available in Linux is essential for effectively managing and securing data on your system.

File used for automatic mounting of file systems

In Linux, the file that is used for automatically mounting file systems is called `/etc/fstab`. This file contains a list of file systems that are mounted during the system boot process, along with the details of the mount points and the options to be used for mounting. The `fstab` file is a crucial part of the system configuration, and any modifications to it should be made with caution, as incorrect entries in this file can lead to problems with system boot or mounting of file systems.

Understanding LVM and its necessity

LVM, or Logical Volume Manager, is a tool used for managing hard drives and storage in Linux operating systems. It allows for flexible and easy partition management by abstracting the physical storage and presenting it as logical units. This allows for easier resizing, moving, and adding of storage without the need to reformat the entire disk. LVM also provides features such as mirroring, striping, and snapshots for improved data security and backup. Overall, LVM is required for efficient use and management of storage in Linux systems.

Understanding the /proc File System

The "/proc" file system is a special file system in Linux that provides information about running processes and system resources. It does not actually contain files, but instead, it presents information about the system and kernel in a file-like structure that can be accessed through commands and utilities. The files within the /proc directory are usually referred to as "proc files" and can be used for monitoring performance, debugging issues, and many other system administrative tasks.

Understanding Daemons in Computer Science

In computer science, daemons refer to background processes that run continuously without any interaction or intervention from the user. These processes typically perform system-related tasks, such as controlling hardware devices, managing network connections, or performing scheduled backups. The name daemon comes from Greek mythology, where it refers to a supernatural being that carries out tasks on behalf of a god or other higher power. In the context of computer science, a daemon is similar to this mythology, performing tasks in the background to support the overall functioning of the system.


There is no code for this question as it is a theoretical concept.

Name of the Daemon that Controls the Print Spooling Process

The daemon that controls the print spooling process is called the


daemon. It is commonly used on Linux and macOS systems for managing print jobs and queues. The CUPSd daemon communicates with the CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System) service and handles the processing of print jobs.

Understanding Zombie Processes

A zombie process is a term used in Unix-based operating systems to describe a process that has completed its execution but still has an entry in the process table. This entry remains in the process table because its parent process has not yet read its exit status. As a result, the zombie process eats up system resources and can cause processes to hang or crash.

In order to prevent a build-up of zombie processes, it is important for the parent process to read its exit status and remove it from the process table using the "wait()" system call. This will free up system resources and prevent system instability.

Difference between Cron and Anacron

Cron and Anacron are both tools used for scheduling tasks in Unix-based operating systems. However, they have some differences in terms of how they handle jobs.

Cron is a daemon that executes scheduled jobs at specific times. It runs constantly in the background and checks its configuration files to see if any jobs are due to run. Cron can run jobs at a resolution of up to one minute.

Anacron, on the other hand, is a program that can handle periodic jobs in a more flexible manner. It is designed for systems that may not be running 24/7, and can adjust the execution time of the jobs accordingly. Anacron can run missed jobs when the system is next turned on.

In summary, Cron is more suitable for systems that are always on and need precise scheduling of tasks, while Anacron is more adaptable and can handle jobs on systems that are not constantly running.

Understanding Load Average in Linux

Load Average in Linux refers to a metric that represents the average sum of the number of running processes and waiting to be executed processes within a specific time interval. It is typically calculated for intervals of 1, 5, and 15 minutes.

The Load Average value is expressed as a floating-point number. If the Load Average is less than or equal to 1.0, this indicates that there is no congestion. On the other hand, a Load Average above 1.0 indicates that the system is overloaded and there may be performance issues.

In general, Load Average is a useful metric for system administrators to monitor the system's overall performance and proactively take action to manage it.


To check the Load Average on a Linux system, run the following command:


This will display a list of information, including the Load Average in the top right corner of the screen.

What is a Shell Script?

A shell script is a computer program designed to be executed in a Unix shell. It is essentially a list of Unix commands that are written in a plain text file and can be executed together as a single program. Shell scripts are commonly used for automation, administrative tasks, and more generally for any task that requires the execution of several Unix commands. They can be used to perform a wide variety of tasks and are an essential tool for Unix system administration.

Understanding Inodes and Process IDs

In Unix-based operating systems, an Inode is a data structure that stores information about a file or directory. This information includes file owner and group, permissions, timestamps, and file size. Each file and directory has a unique Inode number.

A Process ID (PID) is a unique identifier that is assigned to each running process on a Unix-based operating system. When a program is executed, the operating system assigns it a PID to identify the process. The PID is used by the operating system to manage the process, including allocating memory, scheduling, and terminating the process when it is no longer needed.

Understanding Inodes and Process IDs is important for system administrators and developers who work in a Unix-based environment. They can use this information to troubleshoot issues related to file permissions, file ownership, and process management.

// Example code for getting the PID of current process in Python

import os

pid = os.getpid()
print("Current Process ID:", pid)

Identifying the First Process Started by the Kernel in Linux and Its Process ID

In Linux, the first process started by the kernel is called `init`. Its process ID is 1.

Understanding CLI and GUI

CLI stands for Command-Line Interface, which is a type of user interface that operates through text commands entered into a terminal or command prompt. It allows users to interact with a computer system using text-based commands.

On the other hand, GUI stands for Graphical User Interface, which is a type of user interface that uses graphic elements such as menus, icons, and windows to allow users to interact with a computer system through a visual representation. It enables users to interact with a system using a mouse, touchpad, or touchscreen, making it more intuitive and user-friendly than CLI.

Both CLI and GUI have their own advantages and disadvantages, and choosing the appropriate interface depends on the user's needs and preferences. While GUI is generally considered more user-friendly and intuitive, CLI can be more efficient and powerful, especially for technical users who prefer using keyboard shortcuts and commands.


In Linux networking, the




files are used for specific purposes:

  • /etc/resolv.conf: This file contains information about the DNS (Domain Name System) server used by the system. It is responsible for resolving domain names to IP addresses. If this file is not configured properly, the system may not be able to connect to the internet or resolve domain names.
  • /etc/hosts: This file contains a list of hostnames and their corresponding IP addresses that the system can use to resolve names without using the DNS server. It is a local database of hostnames that can be used for faster name resolution in small networks.

Benefits of NIC teaming

NIC teaming provides several advantages, including:

  1. Better network performance and throughput by combining multiple network interfaces.

  2. Redundancy and failover protection in case one of the network interfaces fails.

  3. Load balancing, distributing network traffic across multiple network interfaces, which improves overall performance.

  4. Easier network configuration and management, reducing the complexity of configuring multiple network interfaces individually.

Overall, NIC teaming provides a more reliable and efficient network infrastructure.

Definition of Network Bonding

Network bonding, also known as Ethernet bonding, is the practice of combining two or more network connections into a single logical interface to increase network performance and redundancy. It is commonly used in data centers or other mission-critical environments where network downtime can result in significant financial loss or other negative consequences.

Different Network Bonding Modes Used in Linux

In Linux, there are several network bonding modes available for combining multiple network interfaces into a single logical interface. These bonding modes are:

mode=0 (balance-rr):

This mode sends network packets in a round-robin fashion across all available network interfaces.

mode=1 (active-backup):

In this mode, only one network interface is active while all other interfaces are in a standby mode. If the active interface fails, one of the standby interfaces is activated.

mode=2 (balance-xor):

This mode sends network packets based on a mathematical algorithm which combines the source and destination MAC addresses of the packets.

mode=3 (broadcast):

This mode sends network packets to all network interfaces.

mode=4 (802.3ad):

Also known as Dynamic Link Aggregation or LACP, this mode provides link aggregation that automatically detects and configures the link.

mode=5 (balance-tlb):

This mode dynamically adjusts the traffic load on each available interface.

mode=6 (balance-alb):

This mode is similar to balance-tlb, but also supports load balancing of outgoing network packets.

These bonding modes can provide redundancy, load balancing, and fault-tolerance for network interfaces in Linux systems.

Default Ports used for DNS, SMTP, FTP, SSH, DHCP, and Squid

DNS - 53 <br>
SMTP - 25 <br>
FTP - 20, 21 <br>
SSH - 22 <br>
DHCP - 67, 68 <br>
Squid - 3128 <br>

These are the default ports used by these protocols. It is important to keep these in mind when setting up network configurations and troubleshooting connection issues.

Understanding SSH and Connecting to a Remote Server

SSH, which stands for Secure Shell, is a protocol for securely connecting to a remote server. It provides a secure channel for data transmission between the client (local computer) and the server (remote computer).

To connect to a remote server via SSH, follow the steps below:

1. Open the terminal on your local computer. 2. Type the following command: `ssh username@remote_server_ip_address` 3. Press Enter and you will be prompted for the password. 4. Enter the password associated with the username on the remote server and hit Enter. 5. You are now connected to the remote server and can execute commands on it from your local computer.

It is important to use a strong and unique password for SSH access and to disable root login to prevent unauthorized access. Additionally, it is recommended to use key-based authentication instead of password authentication for enhanced security.

Difference between Soft and Hard Links

Hard links and soft links (also known as symbolic links) are two types of links that can be created in a filesystem. The main difference between them is the way they reference the underlying file.

  • Hard links directly reference the underlying file by its inode number.
  • Soft links, on the other hand, create a new file that contains the path to the underlying file. This new file is linked to the original file.

Here are some more differences between these two types of links:

1) Multiple links: Multiple hard links can be created for a single file, but multiple soft links can also be created.

2) Moving files: If the original file is moved, hard links to the file will still be valid and continue to exist. In contrast, if the original file is moved, soft links will break and no longer work.

3) Deleting files: If a hard link is deleted, the underlying file still exists and other hard links can still access it. If a file that has a soft link is deleted, the link will point to nothing and become broken.

4) Symbolic link size: Soft links are much smaller in size than hard links because they only contain a path to the original file.

5) Permission changes: If permissions to the original file are changed, hard links to the file inherit those changes. However, if permissions to the original file are changed, soft links will still work as long as the user has the appropriate permissions for the link itself.

In summary, hard links directly reference the underlying file by its inode number, while soft links create a new file that contains the path to the underlying file. The choice between using a hard link or soft link depends on the specific use case and desired behavior.

Standard Streams in Linux

In Linux, the three standard streams are:

- Standard Input (stdin): This is the stream where a program reads its input by default. In Linux, it's represented by the file descriptor with value 0.

- Standard Output (stdout): This is the stream where a program sends its output by default. In Linux, it's represented by the file descriptor with value 1.

- Standard Error (stderr): This is the stream where a program sends its error messages by default. In Linux, it's represented by the file descriptor with value 2.


The netstat command is a tool used in Linux to display network connections, routing tables, and a number of network interface statistics. This command is used to check which processes are using a particular network connection and also to identify network-related issues.


Explanation of the Ping Command

The ping command is a network troubleshooting tool that is used to check the connectivity between two devices. It sends a small packet of data to the device and waits for a response. If the device responds, it means that there is a connection between the two devices. If it doesn't respond, there may be a problem with the connection or the device may be offline. The ping command can be executed in the command prompt on a Windows computer or in the terminal on a Mac or Linux computer.

Checking the Default Run Level in Linux

To check the default run level in Linux, the following command can be used:



This will display the current run level and the previous run level. The run level determines the services and applications that start automatically upon booting the system.

Note: It is important to run this command with root privileges to ensure accurate results.H3 tag: Command to check the size of a file or directory

The command that is used to check the size of a file or directory in Linux is the "du" command.


du -sh <file/directory_path>

The "-h" option is used to show the size in a human-readable format, while the "-s" option is used to show a summary of the size of the file/directory.

For example, to check the size of a directory named "documents" in the current directory, the following command can be used:

du -sh documents 

This will show the size of the "documents" directory in a human-readable format.

Command to count the number of characters in a file

The command to count the number of characters in a file is "wc -m". This command counts the number of characters in a given file.

Function of 'grep' Command

The 'grep' command is used in Linux and Unix systems to search for a specific string or pattern in a file or multiple files. It can be used to find and match lines in a file that contain a certain pattern or keyword. This command is very useful for programmers and system administrators for searching and filtering log files, configuration files, and other types of text files. The syntax for using 'grep' command is as follows:

grep pattern file_name

Here, 'pattern' can be any regular expression or string, and 'file_name' is the name of the file or files in which the search will be performed. The 'grep' command can also be used with various options to modify the behavior of the search, such as searching in a case-insensitive manner, displaying line numbers, and displaying context lines around the matching lines.

Working of the env command

The env command is used to display environment variables in Linux operating systems. It can also be used to run a program or a script with the specified environment variables.

When the env command is used without any arguments, it displays a list of all the environment variables that are currently set in your shell. For example, typing `env` in the shell prompt will display a list of environment variables such as `PATH`, `HOME`, `USER`, and so on.

You can also use the env command to run a program or a script with the specified environment variables. For this, you need to specify the environment variables and their values as arguments to the env command, followed by the program or the script that you want to run. For example, if you want to run a script called `myscript.sh` with the environment variable `MYVAR` set to `hello`, you can use the following command:

$ env MYVAR=hello ./myscript.sh

This will run `myscript.sh` with the `MYVAR` environment variable set to `hello`.

The env command can also be used to modify the environment variables of a running program. For this, you need to find out the process ID (PID) of the program and then use the env command with the `-i` option to set the new environment variables. For example, if the PID of the program is `1234` and you want to set the `MYVAR` environment variable to `world`, you can use the following command:

$ env -i MYVAR=world /proc/1234/environ

This will modify the environment variables of the program with PID `1234` and set the `MYVAR` variable to `world`.

Overall, the env command is a useful tool for managing and modifying environment variables in Linux systems.

Explanation of the PWD Command

The PWD command is a commonly used command in a Unix-based operating system. It stands for "Print Working Directory" and simply outputs the current working directory path to the command-line interface. This command is particularly helpful when navigating through different directories in the command line and can help to keep track of your current location.

Example Usage: 

To use the PWD command, simply open up your command-line interface and type "pwd" followed by the enter key. The output should be the current working directory path.



Command to Check Listening Ports and Services in a Machine

The command used to check all the listening ports and services of a machine is "netstat". This command displays all active network connections, routing tables, and a list of listening ports on the machine. By default, netstat lists the ports in numerical order and includes the protocol, the local address, the foreign address, and the state of the connection.

To execute this command on a Windows machine, open the command prompt and type "netstat -a" or "netstat -b" to show the process name for each connection. On a Linux machine, open the terminal and type "netstat -tulpn" to show a list of all listening ports, along with the names of the processes that opened them.

Checking Memory Status in Command Line Interface (CLI)

To check the memory status in Command Line Interface (CLI), you can use the command:


This command displays information about the total and used memory (both RAM and swap memory) in kilobytes. It also provides information about the buffers used by the kernel.

Another command that you can use to check the memory status is:


This command provides a real-time dynamic view of the processes running on the system along with detailed information about system memory usage.

Note: Both commands are commonly used in Linux/Unix based systems.


In Linux, there are several commands related to directories. Some of the most commonly used ones are:


: This command lists the contents of a directory.


: This command changes the current working directory.


: This command prints the current working directory.


: This command creates a new directory.


: This command removes a directory.


: This command copies files and directories.


: This command moves or renames files and directories.


: This command removes files and directories.


: This command searches for files and directories.

These commands are essential for navigating and managing directories in Linux.

Understanding the term "Unmask"

Unmask means to reveal the true identity or nature of something or someone that was previously hidden or unknown. In other words, it is the act of uncovering something that was disguised or kept secret. This term is commonly used in the context of revealing the true identity of a person who was previously anonymous or operating under a pseudonym. It can also refer to revealing the true nature or motivation behind a particular action or situation.

Command to Review Boot Messages

The command used to review boot messages on a Unix/Linux system is "dmesg".



This command displays the kernel ring buffer, which contains messages related to the system boot process and hardware initialization. It can be useful for troubleshooting boot issues or identifying hardware problems.

Differences between Linux and Unix

Linux and Unix are two different operating systems commonly used in the industry. While they share some similarities, they also have some fundamental differences that set them apart. Here are some of the key differences between Linux and Unix:

  • Linux is open-source, meaning it can be used and shared freely, while Unix is not.
  • Linux is available in many different distributions, such as Ubuntu, Red Hat, and Debian, while Unix is typically only available in a few proprietary distributions.
  • Linux is licensed under the GNU General Public License, while Unix is proprietary and requires a license to use.
  • Linux supports a wider range of hardware than Unix.
  • Unix is known for its stability and scalability, while Linux is known for its flexibility and customization.
  • Linux has a larger community of developers and users, which leads to faster development and better support.
  • Linux has better support for newer technologies, such as virtualization and cloud computing, while Unix has been around longer and has more legacy applications.

Overall, Linux and Unix are both powerful operating systems with unique strengths and weaknesses. The choice between them depends on the specific needs and preferences of the user.

Differences Between Bash and DOS

Bash and DOS are two different command line interfaces used in different operating systems. Some of the key differences between them are:

- Bash is the default shell in most of the Linux distributions, whereas DOS is a command processor in Microsoft operating systems. - Bash is case sensitive whereas DOS is not. - Bash uses forward slash (/) as a directory separator whereas DOS uses a backward slash (\). - Bash uses different commands and syntax for its operations as compared to DOS. - Bash has built-in commands for a wide range of operations, whereas DOS relies more on external utilities.

In summary, while both Bash and DOS provide a command line interface for interacting with the operating system, they differ in their default shells, case sensitivity, directory separators, command syntax, and built-in commands.

Understanding Samba and Its Significance

Samba is an open-source software suite designed to enable seamless file and print services communication between Unix/Linux and Windows-based operating systems. It enables Linux servers to share their resources, such as files and printers, with Windows-based clients over a network. Samba is crucial in a heterogeneous environment where different platforms are used, such as a small business or an organization with both Windows and Linux machines. It eradicates the need for proprietary software and allows for easy file-sharing. Additionally, Samba helps to integrate a Linux or Unix server into an existing Windows network, ensuring that the connectivity is as smooth as possible. Ultimately, Samba is required for interoperability – the ability of different systems to interact with and understand each other – between Linux/Unix and Windows.


This section presents the concluding remarks of the study.

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