Common JSP Interview Questions to Expect in 2023 - IQCode

Introduction to Java Server Pages (JSP)

Java Server Pages (JSP) is a server-side programming technology that allows for the creation of dynamic and platform-independent web-based applications. It is a fundamental component of Java EE, a complete platform for enterprise-class applications. Whether building simple or complex applications, JSP can be used to create them.

JSP and the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) serve similar purposes, but JSP offers advantages over CGI.

JSP Interview Questions for Freshers

1. What is JSP?

How JSP Works?

JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a technology used to create dynamic web pages in Java. JSP files are HTML files that contain Java code snippets and special tags which are processed by a web container such as Tomcat.

When a user requests a JSP page, the web container generates a Servlet class for it. This Servlet class is responsible for processing the request and generating the response. The JSP code is compiled to this Servlet class code behind the scenes.

Once the Servlet class is created, the web container loads it into memory and executes its service() method to generate the final response. The response can be a combination of HTML, CSS, and Java code, depending on what is specified in the JSP file.

Overall, JSP works as an intermediary technology between HTML and Java Servlets, allowing developers to write dynamic web pages with Java code, while still maintaining the flexibility and ease of use of HTML pages.

// Example JSP code snippet
String username = request.getParameter("username");
out.print("Welcome " + username + "!");

JSP Initialization Process

JSP, or JavaServer Pages, initialization process takes place in the following order:

  • Compilation of JSP file into a Java Servlet
  • Instantiation of the Servlet
  • Initialization of the Servlet via the init() method, where any necessary resources are created or initialized

/* Example init() method in a JSP */
public void init() throws ServletException {
  // Initialize database connection
  Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:mysql://localhost/mydb", "username", "password");

Understanding the use of JSP

JSP (JavaServer Pages) is a technology used in web development that allows the creation of dynamic web pages by combining HTML, Java code, and taglibs. JSP is particularly useful for building web applications that require customization based on user input or real-time data. Some of the common uses of JSP include:

  • Generating dynamic content such as forms, tables, or charts based on user input or database queries
  • Creating pages that require access to server-side functionality, such as session management, database connectivity, or security authentication
  • Integrating Java code with client-side technologies such as JavaScript or CSS to create a richer user experience

Overall, JSP is a powerful tool for web developers that can help simplify the process of building adaptable, dynamic, and interactive web applications.

Advantages of using JSP

JSP provides website developers with several advantages, including:

  1. Easy Integration with Java Code: JSP pages can be easily integrated with server-side Java code to provide dynamic content generation on the website.

  2. Easy to Learn: JSP is relatively simple to learn, especially if you have prior experience with HTML and Java. And the syntax is easy to use for creating dynamic web pages.

  3. Fast and Efficient Processing: JSP pages are compiled when they are first requested by users, which results in faster processing times and efficient server usage.

  4. Scalability: With JSP, it is easy to add functionality to existing web pages, making them more robust and scalable as the website grows.

  5. Reusability: JSP components can be reused across different web pages or even different websites, making it easier to maintain and update website content.

<br><%-- This is a JSP comment. --%>

Java Server Template Engines

Java Server Template Engines refer to frameworks or libraries used in Java web development that allow for the easy creation and manipulation of web pages with dynamic content. These engines enable developers to design and produce web pages that respond to user interactions and changes in data without having to create static web pages for every possible scenario. Popular Java Server Template Engines include Apache Velocity, Freemarker, Thymeleaf, and JavaServer Pages (JSP).

Servlets in Web Development

A Servlet is a Java class that runs on a web server and processes web requests. When a client sends a request, the servlet receives it and generates a response, which is sent back to the client. Servlets play a crucial role in web development as they are used to create dynamic web pages, handle form data, and interact with databases. They offer a convenient, platform-independent way to extend the functionality of a web server, making it possible to build powerful, interactive websites.

Explanation of the Servlet Life Cycle

A servlet is a Java class that follows a specific life cycle, which is as follows:

1. Load and Initialization: When a servlet container (such as Tomcat or Jetty) starts up, it loads all servlet classes that it finds in its configuration files. After loading, the container creates an instance of each servlet by calling its constructor and initializes it by calling the init() method.

2. Request Handling: After initialization, the servlet is ready to handle incoming requests. Whenever a client sends a request to the server, the container handles the request and creates an HTTPServletRequest and HTTPServletResponse object that contains information about the request and its response.

3. Service: Once the request and response objects have been created, the container calls the Servlet's service() method with these objects as arguments. The service() method can then use the request object to read client-provided data and use the response object to write data back to the client.

4. Destroy: When the container shuts down, it calls the destroy() method of each servlet in its configuration to perform any necessary cleanup tasks. It also calls the destroy() method when it decides to remove an instance of a servlet from memory.

In summary, a servlet follows a four-stage life cycle: load and initialization, request handling, service, and destroy. Each stage involves certain methods that must be implemented by the developer. Understanding the servlet life cycle is essential for building robust and efficient web applications.

Types of Elements in Java Server Pages (JSP)

In JSP, there are three main types of elements:

1. Directive elements - these set global information for the JSP page or define custom tag libraries. 2. Scripting elements - these allow Java code to be embedded within the JSP page. 3. Action elements - these enable the JSP page to interact with the user, server, or other resources.

Difference between JSP and JavaScript

JSP (JavaServer Pages) is a server-side technology used for creating dynamic web pages while JavaScript is a client-side scripting language used for creating interactive effects and functionalities on the web page.

One major difference is that JSP is executed on the server side and produces HTML that is sent to the client, while JavaScript code is executed on the client side, within the browser.

JSP allows for the embedment of Java code within an HTML page, providing dynamic content on the server side, while JavaScript can be used to manipulate and change HTML and CSS on the client side without making server requests.

In summary, JSP and JavaScript serve different purposes and are used in different areas of web development. JSP is used for server-side programming and generating dynamic content, while JavaScript is used for adding interactivity and functionality to the client-side of a web page.

// sample JSP code that prints a dynamic message based on the user's input
String name = request.getParameter("name");  
out.print("Hello "+name+"!");  
// sample JavaScript code that changes the background color of a button when clicked
<!DOCTYPE html>  
function changeColor() {  
   document.getElementById("myButton").style.backgroundColor = "red";  
<button id="myButton" onclick="changeColor()">Click me!</button>  

What is JSP Expression Language (EL)?

JSP Expression Language (EL) is a scripting language used in JavaServer Pages (JSP) to simplify the process of accessing data stored in Java objects. It provides a way to easily get, set, and manipulate data without the need for scriptlets or Java code. EL expressions are typically enclosed in ${} and can be used in attributes of JSP tags or embedded in JSP content. It is a powerful feature that allows developers to write more concise and readable code.

JSP Operators

JSP operators are symbols that are used to perform mathematical or logical operations on variables or values in JSP expressions. There are several types of operators supported in JSP, including arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /), comparison operators (==, !=, >, <, >=, <=), logical operators (&&, ||, !), string concatenation operator (+), and ternary operator (?:). These operators can be used to manipulate the data in JSP pages and to control the flow of execution. Understanding these operators is an essential part of developing JSP applications.

Explanation of JSP For Loop

JSP (JavaServer Pages) for loop is a looping construct that allows iterating over a block of code for a specified number of times. The syntax for the JSP for loop is as follows:

   for(int i=0;i<count;i++){
      <!-- Your JSP code goes here -->

In this example, the variable `count` specifies the number of times the block of code should be run. The loop initializes the variable `i` to 0 and increments it each time the loop runs. The block of JSP code inside the loop will be executed until the condition `iJSP While Loop Explanation

JSP (JavaServer Pages) while loop is a control flow statement that allows executing a set of statements repeatedly based on a specified expression condition. The while loop checks whether the given condition is true and executes the block of code repeatedly until the condition becomes false. The syntax of the while loop in JSP is:

   while(condition) {
      // statements to be executed repeatedly

Here, the `condition` is an expression that is tested for true or false. If the condition is true, the statements inside the while loop are executed. Then, the condition is checked again, and if it is still true, the statements are executed again. This process continues until the condition becomes false.

JSP while loop is useful in scenarios where we need to execute a set of statements repeatedly until the condition is true. It is commonly used for iterating over a collection of values or checking the validity of user inputs.

Overall, the JSP while loop plays an essential role in controlling the flow of program execution and reaching the desired results.

Common JSP interview question for experienced: Implicit objects in JSP

In JSP, implicit objects are objects that are already defined and can be directly used in JSP pages without any declaration. These objects represent the basic functionalities of JSP and include:

- request
- response
- out
- page
- pageContext
- session
- application
- config
- exception

These objects are used for various purposes like retrieving form data, accessing the application context, handling error pages, etc. Their scope remains limited to a specific JSP page, and they are automatically generated by the container at the time of execution.

Javabeans in Java Programming

JavaBeans is a software component model for the Java programming language, which allows the development of modular and reusable applications. It is a class specification that has a no-argument constructor, private member variables with public methods, and implements the Serializable interface. JavaBeans are used to encapsulate many objects into a single object, creating a simple and intuitive interface for developers to work with. Overall, JavaBeans help to promote code reusability, flexibility, and maintainability.

Explanation of JSTL Core Tags

JSTL stands for JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library. The core tags in JSTL provide a set of basic functionality that can be used to perform common tasks in Java web development, such as iterating over a collection, conditionally executing a piece of code, or setting a variable value.

The JSTL core tags can be used in JSP pages to simplify the code and make it more readable and maintainable. They can help to reduce the need for custom Java code or scriptlets in JSP pages, which can make the page easier to understand and debug.

Some examples of JSTL core tags include:

- `` - evaluates a condition and executes its body if the condition is true - `` - iterates over a collection and executes a body for each element - `` - sets a value for a variable in a specified scope

Overall, JSTL core tags are used to improve the efficiency and organization of JSP pages in Java web development.

Methods for Reading Form Data using JSP

In JSP, there are two commonly used methods for reading form data:

1. Using request.getParameter() method: This method retrieves the value of a parameter sent in the HTTP request. It takes the name of the parameter as an argument and returns the value of the parameter.

2. Using JSP Expression Language (EL): EL provides an easier way to access form data by using the ${param} object. This object is a map that contains all the parameters sent in the request. To access a parameter value using EL, you can use ${param.parameterName}.

Example of using request.getParameter() method:

    String username = request.getParameter("username");
    String password = request.getParameter("password");

Example of using JSP Expression Language (EL):

    String username = ${param.username};
    String password = ${param.password};

What is an Exception Object?

An exception object in programming refers to an object that represents an error or exceptional situation within a program's execution. It contains information such as the type of error that occurred, the location of the error, and any relevant data associated with it. Exception objects are commonly used in error-handling routines, allowing the program to identify when an error has occurred and take appropriate action. They are also used to provide feedback to users or other parts of the program, indicating that something has gone wrong and what the issue may be.

How JSP Processing Works

In JSP (JavaServer Pages) , when a user sends a request, the web container responds by processing the JSP page. The JSP processing steps involve:

1. Parsing: The JSP container reads the JSP page and separates the static data, HTML code, and JSP elements.

2. Compilation: The JSP page is then compiled into a Servlet.

3. Class Loading: The Servlet class is loaded into memory.

4. Initialization: Servlet initialization takes place.

5. Execution: The HTTP request is handled by the instantiated Servlet. The JSP page generates a response for the requested data from the user.

6. Destroy: The Servlet is destroyed.

After the response is generated and sent back to the user, the JSP page is no longer present in the response. Instead, only the generated Servlet code is present. This makes JSP an efficient option for dynamic web page creation.

Anatomy of a JSP Page

A JSP (JavaServer Page) page has the following anatomy:

<%@ page <i>directive1</i>="value1" <i>directive2</i>="value2" ... %>

- Page directive that specifies various attributes of the JSP page like error page, session behavior, scripting language, autoFlush.


- HTML tags that define the structure and content of the page.


- Head section that contains meta-data about the page like title, description, and keywords.

<% <i>declarations</i> %>

- Declarations section that defines global variables, methods, and classes.

<%! <i>scriptlets</i> %>

- Scriptlets section that contains Java code that is executed when the page is loaded.

<% <i>expressions</i> %>

- Expressions section that evaluates Java expressions and prints their values in the HTML page.

<%@ include file="filename" %>

- Include directive that includes the content from another JSP or HTML file into the current page.


- Body section that contains the main content of the page.


By using this anatomy, a JSP page can be designed and implemented with ease to provide dynamic and interactive web pages.

Various Action Tags used in JSP

In JSP, there are several action tags that are used for various purposes:


This tag is used to include static or dynamic resources or pages in the JSP file.


This tag is used to transfer the control of the current request to another resource or page


This tag is used to instantiate a Java bean and set its properties, as well as to get the value of a particular property of the bean.


This tag is used to set the properties of a Java bean.


This tag is used to get the values of the properties of a Java bean.


This tag is used to embed an applet or other multimedia object into the JSP page.

JSP Scriptlet

A JSP scriptlet is a block of Java code that can be inserted into the body of a JSP page. It is enclosed within <% and %> tags and is used to perform any Java logic or write content to the response. The code between the scriptlet tags is executed on the server-side when the JSP is requested, and the resulting output is sent back to the client in the form of a response. JSP scriptlets can access JSP implicit objects, request, session, and application-scoped variables to manipulate data and generate dynamic content. However, it is recommended to use JSTL tags and expression language whenever possible instead of relying on scriptlets as they provide better readability, maintenance, and performance.

Understanding MVC in JSP

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) is an architectural pattern that separates an application into three main components: the model, the view, and the controller. In JSP, the model represents the data, the view represents the presentation layer, and the controller handles the user input and updates the model and view accordingly.

The model component contains the application logic and data, such as database access and business rules. The view component handles the presentation of the data to the user, such as HTML, JSP, or XML. The controller component receives the user input from the view, updates the model accordingly, and then updates the view to reflect any changes made to the model.

By separating these components, it becomes easier to maintain and modify a JSP application. The model, view, and controller can be developed separately, making it easy to update or replace one component without affecting the others. This also helps to make the code more modular, reusable, and easier to test.

In summary, understanding MVC in JSP can greatly improve the design and development of web applications by separating concerns and increasing modularity.

Understanding JSP Declarations

In JSP, a declaration is a block of code that is used to define methods or variables that can be accessed from the rest of the JSP page. It is declared using the syntax:

<%! ... %>

The code within the declaration block is inserted into the generated servlet's class definition. Declarations can be used to define methods or variables that are global in scope and can be accessed from any part of the JSP page.

It is important to note that JSP declarations are not recommended as they promote mixing of presentation and logic. It is best practice to keep the presentation and logic separate, so as to make the code more modular and easier to maintain.


Overall, in conclusion, it can be said that...

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