Top Hibernate Interview Questions and Answers in 2023 - IQCode
Understanding Hibernate: Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) and Persistence Framework
Hibernate is a popular persistence framework written in Java. It is used to map plain old Java objects (POJOs) to relational database tables. The primary goal of the Hibernate framework is to simplify the persistence-related configurations and tasks. It does this by offering an abstraction framework that maps database tables to POJO objects in an efficient, seamless manner.
Developers using Hibernate are shielded from underlying complexities and can execute queries quickly and without issue. This abstracted workflow accelerates development time and helps users save valuable hours that would have been spent on more time-consuming tasks.
Hibernate Interview Questions for Freshers:
1. What is ORM in Hibernate?
Advantages of Hibernate over JDBC
Hibernate is a popular Object Relational Mapping (ORM) framework that has several advantages over JDBC. Some of the advantages are:
- Less Code: Hibernate provides a higher level of abstraction than JDBC, which leads to less code by automating the mapping between Java objects and database tables. This helps in reducing the amount of boilerplate code that needs to be written for database operations.
- Increased Productivity: With Hibernate, developers can focus more on business logic rather than writing SQL statements, which results in increased productivity.
- Database Independence: Hibernate supports multiple databases, which allows developers to switch between databases without changing the code.
- Improved Performance: Hibernate is efficient in generating optimized SQL statements, which results in improved database performance.
- Support for Caching: Hibernate supports first-level and second-level caching, which can significantly improve application performance.
- Transaction Management: Hibernate provides a sophisticated transaction management mechanism that ensures data consistency and avoids data corruption.
In summary, Hibernate provides several advantages over JDBC, including increased productivity, improved performance, and support for caching and transaction management.
Important Interfaces in Hibernate Framework
Hibernate Framework includes several important interfaces that developers use to interact with the framework:
- SessionFactory: creates database sessions and holds configuration data for Hibernate - Session: provides a transactional context for persistent objects and offers CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations to interact with the database - Transaction: manages database transactions by providing commit or rollback functionality - Query: allows for the creation and execution of HQL (Hibernate Query Language) commands to retrieve data from the database - Criteria: provides a type-safe way to construct and execute queries against the database
Understanding Hibernate Sessions
A session in Hibernate refers to a physical transaction with a database. It is used to perform database operations, such as inserting, updating, and deleting records. A session can be obtained from a SessionFactory, which is a thread-safe object responsible for creating and managing sessions. Once you have the session, you can access the database and perform database operations. It is important to properly manage sessions to avoid resource leaks and improve performance.
Understanding SessionFactory in Hibernate
SessionFactory is a key interface of Hibernate API that provides a factory for creating Session objects. It is responsible for initializing the Hibernate framework and creating objects that interact with the database. The SessionFactory interface is used to create a Session object for each user session, enabling the management of database connections and transactions. In simple terms, SessionFactory is a one-time creation of database connections and can be used by any number of client sessions.
Thoughts on "Session Being a Thread-Safe Object"
As an AI language model, I do not have personal opinions. However, I can provide information that might be helpful.
In the context of programming, a thread-safe object is one that can be safely used by multiple threads at once without causing conflicts or errors.
In the case of a session object, which is often used in web applications to maintain the state of a user's interactions with the site, it is important for the session to be thread-safe so that multiple users can access it simultaneously without interference.
However, it is worth noting that the thread safety of a session object depends on how it is implemented in a given programming language or framework. It is always a good idea to consult the documentation or seek advice from experienced programmers to ensure that session objects are being used safely and effectively in a particular project.
Explanation of Lazy Loading in Hibernate
Lazy loading is a technique used in Hibernate where objects are not loaded into memory until they are specifically requested. In other words, instead of loading the entire object graph at once, Hibernate loads the parent object and only fetches the child objects when necessary.
This approach helps to increase the performance of the application, as it avoids loading unnecessary data into memory. It also allows for more efficient use of database resources.
For example, if we have a large number of child objects associated with a parent object, we can use lazy loading to only load those child objects that are required by the application.
To implement lazy loading in Hibernate, we can use the fetch type "lazy" for collections of child objects. This ensures that the associated child objects are not loaded until they are needed.
Overall, lazy loading is a powerful technique that can help to optimize the performance of Hibernate applications.
Difference between First Level Cache and Second Level Cache
First Level Cache is a session-specific cache that stores a single session’s persistent objects and provides a transparent optimization that can greatly increase the performance of most applications. It is enabled by default and cannot be disabled. First level Cache helps minimizing the communication overhead between the application and the database.
Second Level Cache is a factory level cache. It is used to store objects across different sessions. Second level cache is optional and can be enabled or disabled. It helps to minimize the database access by sharing the common cache across multiple sessions.
In summary, First level Cache is local cache (per session) while Second Level Cache is shared cache (per factory).
//First level cache example Session session = sessionFactory.openSession(); User user1 = (User) session.get(User.class, 1L); User user2 = (User) session.get(User.class, 1L); //will not hit the database again session.close(); //Second level cache example SessionFactory sessionFactory = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory(); Session session = sessionFactory.openSession(); session.beginTransaction(); Query query = session.createQuery("from User where username=:username"); query.setParameter("username", "johndoe"); query.setCacheable(true); List users = query.list(); session.getTransaction().commit(); session.close();
Understanding the Hibernate Configuration File
The Hibernate Configuration File is an XML file that contains configuration settings for the Hibernate framework. It specifies details such as the database driver class name, the database URL, username, and password. It also includes mappings for objects, specifying how classes should be mapped to database tables.
Additionally, the configuration file specifies properties such as the maximum number of connections in the connection pool, the dialect used to communicate with the database, and caching settings.
Proper configuration of the Hibernate configuration file is crucial for the successful execution of Hibernate-based applications.
Creating an Immutable Class in Hibernate
To create an immutable class in Hibernate, follow these steps:
1. Declare the class as final so it cannot be extended. 2. Declare all fields as final. 3. Do not provide setter methods for the fields. 4. Use a constructor to set the values of all the fields. 5. Annotate the class with @Immutable.
By following these steps, Hibernate will create immutable objects of the class, which can help improve performance and eliminate possible errors caused by mutable objects.
Explanation of Hibernate Inheritance Mapping Concept
In Hibernate, inheritance mapping is a way to map object-oriented domain model inheritance hierarchies to the relational database structure. The concept behind Hibernate inheritance mapping is to provide an easy way to persist the polymorphic nature of an object-oriented domain model. Hibernate implements the three approaches to mapping inheritance hierarchies:
1. Single Table Inheritance – This mapping approach maps all classes in the hierarchy to a single database table. Properties specific to a subclass will be set to NULL for the other subclasses. 2. Joined Table Inheritance – In this approach, each class in the hierarchy is mapped to its own database table, and each table is joined with a parent table to form a complete representation of the hierarchy. 3. Table per Class Inheritance – Every class in the hierarchy is mapped to its own database table, which includes columns for the class's attributes, as well as the attributes of its superclasses.
Hibernate inheritance mapping provides flexibility and helps to reduce code redundancy by creating a common code base for related classes.
Is Hibernate Vulnerable to SQL Injection Attacks?
Hibernate is designed to protect against SQL injection attacks by using prepared statements and parameterized queries, which sanitize user input before executing database queries. Therefore, if Hibernate is used correctly, it is not prone to SQL injection attacks. However, it is important to ensure that queries are written using the appropriate syntax and that user input is properly validated to further reduce the risk of SQL injection vulnerabilities.
Explaining Hibernate Mapping File
Hibernate is an object-relational mapping (ORM) tool that helps in mapping an object-oriented domain model to a traditional relational database. Hibernate Mapping File defines how Java objects are mapped to the database tables. It forms the bridge between the application and the database by representing the Java class attributes into the database columns.
The mapping file is an XML file that contains the metadata for the persistence class. It provides the details of the database table's schema for the corresponding persistence class. The mapping file specifies the connection between the relational data and the object model. It describes how the Java class corresponds to the database table and the properties of both.
In a nutshell, Hibernate Mapping File provides a way to map Database tables to Java classes and vice versa. It is a crucial part of any Hibernate application as it enables Hibernate to know how to interact with the database.
Commonly Used Annotations to Support Hibernate Mapping
In Hibernate, the most commonly used annotations to support mapping are:
- @Entity: Defines a class as an entity
- @Table: Specifies the table name for an entity
- @Id: Identifies a property as the primary key
- @GeneratedValue: Specifies how the primary key is generated
- @Column: Maps a property to a column in a table
- @OneToMany: Establishes a one-to-many relationship between two entities
- @ManyToOne: Establishes a many-to-one relationship between two entities
- @JoinColumn: Specifies the column that is used for joining tables in a relationship
- @Transient: Marks a property as not being persistent
These annotations can be used to simplify the configuration of Hibernate and to provide more control over how entities are mapped to database tables.
Explaining Hibernate Architecture
Hibernate is an open-source, Java-based ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) framework that provides a mapping between Java objects and relational databases. It simplifies the development of Java applications by eliminating the need for tedious JDBC coding and provides a rich set of features to manage database operations.
Hibernate Architecture consists of four main layers:
- Application Layer: This layer includes the application code that interacts with Hibernate.
- Persistence Layer: This layer maps Java objects to the relational database tables and vice versa. It includes Hibernate's core API and dialects to perform CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operations on the database.
- Database Layer: This layer represents the actual database that stores data. Hibernate supports different types of databases such as Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL, etc.
- Connection Pooling Layer: This layer manages and provides connections to the database for Hibernate operations. It helps to avoid the overhead of creating a new database connection for each operation, which can slow down the application.
Hibernate Configuration plays a crucial role in Hibernate Architecture. It includes properties to configure various aspects of Hibernate, such as the database connection, mapping files, caching, and transaction management, etc. The Hibernate Configuration API provides methods to set these properties and build a SessionFactory, which is responsible for creating Hibernate sessions.
In summary, Hibernate Architecture provides a robust framework for developers to manage database operations in Java applications. Its layered structure and powerful features make it a popular choice for building scalable and efficient applications.
Difference between getCurrentSession() and openSession() methods
The getCurrentSession() method is used to obtain a reference to the current Hibernate session, which is associated with the current thread. This method returns a session object that is already opened and is part of the current transaction.
On the other hand, the openSession() method is used to open a new Hibernate session. This method returns a completely new and unopened session object and it is the responsibility of the developer to explicitly manage it by opening and closing the session when required. This method is typically used in scenarios where long-lived transactions are needed or when the application requires multiple sessions.
In summary, getCurrentSession() returns an already opened session that is bound to the current thread, while openSession() returns a new and unopened session that needs to be managed explicitly by the developer.
Difference between save() and saveOrUpdate() methods in Hibernate Session
In Hibernate Session,
method is used to insert a new record into the database, while
method can be used to either insert a new record or update an existing one.
method performs the insertion of a new record into the database, regardless of whether a similar record already exists or not. If a record with the same primary key already exists, then a
will be thrown by Hibernate.
On the other hand,
method can be used to save a new record or update an existing record by checking whether a record with the provided primary key already exists in the database. If it exists, the record will be updated, otherwise, a new record will be created.
Here is an example code snippet of using
methods in Hibernate Session:
Student student = new Student(); student.setId(1); student.setName("John Doe"); student.setAge(25); Session session = sessionFactory.openSession(); Transaction transaction = session.beginTransaction(); // using save() method to insert a new record session.save(student); // using saveOrUpdate() method to either insert or update a record Student studentToUpdate = new Student(); studentToUpdate.setId(1); studentToUpdate.setName("Jane Smith"); studentToUpdate.setAge(27); session.saveOrUpdate(studentToUpdate); transaction.commit(); session.close();
In the above example, the first
method call inserts a new record into the database, while the second
method call updates the record with id=1 if it already exists, otherwise it inserts a new record.
Difference between get() and load() in Hibernate Session
In Hibernate Session, both get() and load() are methods used to retrieve data from the database, but they have some differences.
get() method loads the complete object from the database into the memory. If the object is not found in the database, it returns null. It is used when you want to retrieve the complete object from the database and modify it.
load() method returns a proxy object that contains a reference to the database. It does not load the complete object from the database until you access any of its properties or methods. If the object is not found in the database, it throws an exception. It is used when you want to retrieve only specific properties of an object from the database.
// Using get() method to retrieve a complete User object from the database User user = session.get(User.class, 1); // Using load() method to retrieve only the name property of a User object from the database String name = session.load(User.class, 1).getName();
Explanation of Criteria API in Hibernate
The Criteria API in Hibernate is a way to programmatically query data from a database using a set of object-oriented query methods rather than writing SQL queries directly. The Criteria API provides a type-safe and intuitive approach to building queries, with support for querying across multiple tables and defining complex filtering conditions.
Using the Criteria API, developers can construct queries using a fluent style of code that is both easy to read and write, while also reducing the need for boilerplate code and minimizing the risks of SQL injection attacks. The Criteria API can also help improve performance by generating optimized queries that take advantage of database indexes and other optimizations, leading to faster execution times and reduced overhead.
Overall, the Criteria API is a powerful tool for developers working with Hibernate, providing a flexible and highly customizable way to query and manipulate data within their applications.
Understanding One-to-Many Associations in Hibernate
In Hibernate, a one-to-many association refers to a relationship between two entities where one entity can have multiple instances of another entity.
For example, let's consider a scenario where a school has multiple teachers. Here, the school is one entity and the teacher is another entity. The one-to-many association between them means that one school can have multiple teachers, but each teacher can only be associated with one school.
To implement a one-to-many association in Hibernate, we typically use a foreign key in the "many" side of the relationship that references the primary key of the "one" side. In our example, each teacher would have a foreign key that links to the primary key of the school they are associated with.
Overall, understanding one-to-many associations in Hibernate is important for modeling relationships between entities in a database and ensuring that data is stored and retrieved accurately.
Explanation of Many-to-Many Associations in Databases
Many-to-Many associations refer to relationships between multiple entities in which one entity can have multiple associations with other entities, and vice versa. In a database, this is often achieved by creating a separate table, known as a join table, which contains foreign keys linking the two entities. The join table allows for the creation of many-to-many relationships without duplication of data or the need for multiple tables.
For example, consider a database for a library. A book can be written by multiple authors, and an author can write multiple books. This is an example of a many-to-many relationship, which can be represented by a join table containing the book ID and author ID. This allows for easy querying and management of the relationship between books and authors.
In summary, many-to-many associations are an essential concept in database design, allowing for efficient management of complex relationships between entities.
Explanation of the Hibernate Session.lock() Method
The Session.lock() method in Hibernate is used to lock an object while it’s being accessed. The purpose of locking an object is to ensure that it is not modified by multiple threads simultaneously, which can cause data inconsistency. When an object is locked, other threads that attempt to access it are blocked until the lock is released.
The Session.lock() method is called with two arguments: the object to be locked and the LockMode of the lock to be obtained. The LockMode can be one of the following:
- READ: allows concurrent reads but blocks write access - UPGRADE: allows one thread to upgrade the lock to WRITE mode - WRITE: blocks all concurrent access
Once the lock is obtained, it can be released explicitly using the Session.unlock() method or automatically when the transaction is committed.
Here's an example of using Session.lock() to obtain a READ lock:
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction(); Product product = session.get(Product.class, productId); // Lock the product in READ mode session.lock(product, LockMode.READ); // Access the product double price = product.getPrice(); tx.commit();
In this example, we obtain a READ lock on the Product object identified by productId. This will allow concurrent reads of the object, but block any attempts to modify it until the lock is released or upgraded.
Understanding Hibernate Caching
Hibernate is an Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) tool used to map our Java classes to database tables. Hibernate caching is the process of storing the frequently accessed data in a cache memory instead of fetching it from the database every time it is requested. This improves the performance of the application by reducing the number of database calls.
Hibernate provides two levels of caching:
- First Level Cache: This is associated with a session object and is enabled by default. It is a session-scoped cache that stores data for a single session and is not available to other sessions.
- Second Level Cache: This cache is shared across all sessions and is typically used for caching data that’s accessed frequently by the application. This cache is not enabled by default and has to be configured in the application.
Caching can be configured based on the application's requirements. Hibernate caching improves the performance of the application by reducing the database fetch time and the number of database calls, but it also requires careful consideration, as it can result in stale or outdated data.
When is the merge() method of the Hibernate Session useful?
The merge() method in Hibernate is used to update a detached entity object into a persistence context. This method is useful when you have more than one session for a single database object and want to reconcile the changes made to it.
For example, if you have an object that was retrieved from one session and modified in another session, Hibernate will not automatically update the object in the database when the second session is closed. Instead, you can use the merge() method to update the changes made in the second session to the original object in the first session.
Additionally, the merge() method can be used to bring a transient object (one that is not associated with any session) into a persistence context. This allows you to save the object to the database without having to explicitly associate it with a session.
Collection Mapping with One-to-One and Many-to-One Associations
I believe that collection mapping can indeed be achieved through one-to-one and many-to-one associations. These associations allow for the creation of relationships between different entities in a database, making it easier to retrieve and manipulate data.
By using one-to-one associations, a single record in one table is related to only one record in another table. On the other hand, many-to-one associations link multiple records in one table to a single record in another table. With these associations in place, it becomes possible to query data across multiple tables and retrieve related information.
Overall, collection mapping through one-to-one and many-to-one associations provides flexibility and efficiency in organizing and accessing data within a database.
Difference Between setMaxResults() and setFetchSize() Methods in Query
In a JDBC query, the setMaxResults() and setFetchSize() methods are used to limit the number of results returned by the database server.
The setMaxResults() method limits the maximum number of rows that will be returned in the result set. For example, if setMaxResults(10) is called on a query, only the first ten rows will be returned in the result set.
On the other hand, the setFetchSize() method limits the number of records that will be returned in a single fetch from the database server. This can help to reduce the memory usage and improve the performance of certain queries.
In summary, setMaxResults() limits the number of rows in the result set, while setFetchSize() limits the number of records that are retrieved in a single fetch from the database server.
Does Hibernate Support Native SQL Queries?
In Hibernate, support for native SQL queries is available using the createSQLQuery() method of the Session interface. These queries can be used for complex database operations that are not easily achievable using HQL (Hibernate Query Language) or Criteria API. However, it is important to note that the use of native SQL queries should be minimized as much as possible, as it can make the code less portable and may result in potential SQL injection attacks.
Hibernate Interview Questions for Experienced
One of the questions that may be asked in a Hibernate interview for experienced developers is what happens when the no-argument constructor is missing in the entity bean.
In Hibernate, the no-argument constructor is required for the entity beans. If it is absent, then Hibernate will throw an Exception. The reason for this is that Hibernate creates a proxy class for every persistent class, and it needs to be able to create an instance of the persistent class without any arguments. If there's no default constructor, Hibernate won't be able to create the proxy. Therefore, it throws an exception.
To avoid this exception, it's important to always include a no-argument constructor in your Hibernate entity classes.
Is it possible to declare an Entity class as final?
In Java, it is possible to declare a class as final, which means that the class cannot be extended by any other class. However, it is not advisable to declare an Entity class as final because it can limit the flexibility and extensibility of the class hierarchy.
For instance, if there is a need to add new fields or methods to an Entity class, it cannot be achieved by extending the class, which is not ideal in most cases. Moreover, it can lead to code duplication and can make the code harder to maintain.
Therefore, it is recommended to avoid declaring Entity classes as final and keep them open for extension if required in the future.
States of a Persistent Entity
A persistent entity can have three states:
1. Transient state: This is the initial state when an entity is first created and is not yet associated with a persistence context.
2. Persistent state: This is the state when the entity is associated with a persistence context, and any changes made to the entity will be reflected in the database upon committing the transaction.
3. Detached state: This is the state when the entity is no longer associated with a persistence context but was previously. Changes made to a detached entity will not be reflected in the database upon committing the transaction unless it is merged back into a persistence context.
Explanation of Query Cache
Query cache is a feature in MySQL that stores the results of SELECT queries in memory, allowing subsequent identical queries to be retrieved much faster. When a new query is executed, the query cache checks if it has already stored the identical query and its results. If the result is in the cache, the server retrieves it from memory, rather than executing the query again. This can save time and resources when frequently accessing the same information. However, it is important to note that query caching can have limitations and impact performance in certain scenarios, such as when tables are frequently updated or when the cache size is too small.
Understanding the N+1 Select Problem in Hibernate
The N+1 select problem is a common issue encountered when using Hibernate, an object-relational mapping (ORM) tool for Java. It occurs when Hibernate executes N+1 SQL queries to retrieve N records, which can cause significant performance issues.
For example, let's say we have two entities: `Department` and `Employee`, with a one-to-many relationship between them. If we query all departments and their employees using Hibernate, it will execute one query to retrieve all departments and N more queries to retrieve employees for each department. This results in N+1 queries, which can impact the performance of our application.
We can avoid this issue by using Hibernate's `join fetch` feature, which allows us to retrieve entities and their relationships in a single query. Alternatively, we can also use the `batch-size` property to fetch entities in batches, reducing the number of queries executed.
Overall, it is important to be aware of the N+1 select problem when using Hibernate and to implement the appropriate solutions to ensure optimal performance.
Solving the N+1 Select Problem in Hibernate
One common issue with Hibernate is the N+1 select problem, which can seriously impact the performance of applications. This problem occurs when Hibernate executes N additional SQL queries in order to fetch N records, even though all the required data could have been fetched in a single query.
Fortunately, there are ways to solve this problem in Hibernate. One approach is to use the `JOIN FETCH` clause in the HQL query to fetch the associated entities eagerly. This can be done by specifying the associations in the query and using the `JOIN FETCH` syntax to retrieve them.
List<Order> orders = session.createQuery( "select o from Order o join fetch o.customer", Order.class ).getResultList();
Another approach is to enable batch fetching in Hibernate. With batch fetching enabled, Hibernate will fetch multiple entities in a single SQL query. This can be done by setting the `hibernate.batch_size` property in the Hibernate configuration file.
# In Hibernate configuration file hibernate.batch_size=10
Overall, the N+1 select problem can have a significant impact on the performance of Hibernate-based applications. By using these approaches, it is possible to solve this issue and improve the performance of the applications.
Concurrency Strategies in Hibernate
In Hibernate, there are three concurrency control strategies:
- Optimistic Locking: when multiple transactions try to access the same data, each transaction gets a copy of the data and makes changes. When the changes are committed, the transaction checks if any other transaction has updated the data. If no other transaction has modified the data, then the changes are saved, otherwise, the transaction is rolled back.
- Pessimistic Locking: when a transaction needs to perform a series of operations on some data, it can lock the data from other transactions to avoid conflicts.
- TimeStamping: each record is given a timestamp, and when a transaction tries to update the record, it checks the timestamp to ensure that no other transaction has updated the record since the last time it was read.
It is important to choose the appropriate concurrency strategy based on the requirements of the application to ensure data consistency and reduce conflicts between transactions.
Single Table Strategy
Single Table Strategy is a type of inheritance strategy in object-relational mapping (ORM) where all the data of subclasses are stored in a single table along with the data of the parent class. This table includes columns for all the attributes of the subclasses as well as for the attributes of the parent class. A discriminator column is also included in order to differentiate between the data of the parent and subclass. This strategy is also known as the concrete table inheritance strategy.
Table Per Class Strategy
The Table Per Class strategy in Hibernate is a mapping strategy used to store the data of each class hierarchy into separate tables. This strategy involves creating a table for each class in the hierarchy which contains all the fields of the class as well as the fields inherited from its parent classes. Each table is created with a foreign key to the parent table in the hierarchy, allowing for easy retrieval of data using joins. This strategy is useful for class hierarchies with many fields or complex relationships, as it allows for more efficient querying and avoids null values in the database.
Named SQL Query in Java
A Named SQL Query, also known as a Hibernate Named Query, is a SQL query that is given a specific name and can be referenced by that name in the application code. Named queries help to simplify commonly used queries and make them more modular and reusable. They can also improve performance as the query is parsed and compiled only once, and then reused each time it is called. Named queries can be defined in the Hibernate mapping file or in a separate XML file. In Java, named queries can be executed using the `createNamedQuery()` method of the `EntityManager` class.
Benefits of using NamedQuery
NamedQuery is a powerful feature in Java Persistence API (JPA) that allows developers to write and execute queries in a more convenient and efficient way. Some benefits of using NamedQuery are:
1. Easier to maintain code: By using NamedQuery, the code becomes more readable and modular as it separates the query logic from the actual code. This makes the code easier to maintain as any changes to the query can be done in a single place.
2. Improved performance: NamedQuery is compiled and stored at the time of deployment. This means that the query execution time is faster as it does not need to be compiled every time it is executed.
3. Prevention of SQL Injection attacks: NamedQuery provides a more secure way of executing queries as it uses parameter binding. This means that input parameters are treated as data and not as part of the query, thus preventing SQL injection attacks.
4. Easier to reuse queries: NamedQueries can be used across multiple entities, making it easier to reuse queries and eliminate the need for writing the same query multiple times.
In summary, NamedQuery provides an easy and efficient way of writing and executing queries in JPA, making queries more maintainable, faster, secure, and reusable.