Top .NET Interview Questions for 2023 - IQCode

Introduction to .NET and .NET Core Framework

The .NET Framework, developed by Microsoft, provides an environment for developers to run, debug and deploy code onto web services and applications using tools and functionalities such as libraries, classes, and APIs. This framework utilizes object-oriented programming for creating high-quality web as well as client applications. One can use different languages such as C#, Cobol, VB, F#, and Perl, for writing .NET framework applications. It supports services, websites, desktop applications, and many more on Windows.

In addition to supporting generic types, automatic memory management, reflection, and concurrency, .NET framework provides numerous functionalities which help developers to make the development process more efficient and easy.

.NET Core, on the other hand, is a newer version of the .NET framework and is developed by Microsoft. It is a general-purpose, cost-free, open-source development platform that can be used across different operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and macOS. It can be used to develop various kinds of applications such as mobile, web, IoT, cloud, microservices, machine learning, games, etc.

Characteristics of .NET Core

  • Free and open-source: .NET Core source code project can be obtained from Github and it is licensed under the MIT and Apache licenses.
  • Cross-platform: .NET Core is supported by various operating systems such as Windows, macOS, and Linux.
  • Sharable: .NET Core uses a single consistent API model written in .NET Standard, which is common for all the .NET applications. This allows the same library or API to be used across multiple platforms with different languages.
  • Friendly: .NET Core is compatible with .NET Framework, Mono, and Xamarin, through .NET Standard. It also supports working with different Web frameworks and libraries such as Angular, React, and JavaScript.
  • Fast: .NET Core 3.0 is faster than .NET Framework, .NET Core 2.2, and previous versions. It is also much faster than other server-side frameworks such as Node.js and Java Servlet.

.NET Interview Questions

The following includes the most frequently asked .NET questions for both freshers and experienced professionals:

1. How does the .NET Framework work?

The .NET Framework consists of a large library of classes and objects that provide a wide range of functionalities for developers. It runs on a Common Language Runtime (CLR), which manages the execution of the code written in any .NET compatible language such as C#, VB.NET, etc. The CLR provides features such as Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation, garbage collection, and exception handling. The .NET Framework also includes the Common Type System (CTS), Common Intermediate Language (CIL), and Common Language Specification (CLS). Developers write code using a .NET compatible language, compile it, and then hand it over to the CLR to execute.

Major Components of the .NET Framework

The .NET Framework has several major components that provide a variety of features and services for building Windows desktop applications, web applications, and services. These components include:

  1. The Common Language Runtime (CLR): This component provides a platform for executing managed code, handling memory management, and ensuring type safety and security.
  2. The Base Class Library (BCL): This component provides a set of reusable classes and types, including data types, collections, file I/O, networking, and more.
  3. Windows Forms and WPF: These are frameworks for building desktop applications that provide a set of user interface controls and a programming model for building responsive and interactive applications.
  4. ASP.NET: This framework provides a programming model and a set of components for building web applications and web services, including web forms, MVC, Web API, and SignalR.
  5. ADO.NET: This component provides a set of classes and interfaces for accessing and manipulating data from a variety of data sources, including databases, XML files, and web services.
  6. Windows Communication Foundation (WCF): This is a framework for building connected, service-oriented applications using a variety of communication protocols and message formats.

By utilizing these components, .NET developers are able to create robust and scalable applications for a variety of platforms and scenarios.

Understanding EXE and DLL files

Code files in Windows often come in two formats: EXE (executable) and DLL (dynamic link library). Both types of files contain code that can be executed by a computer, but they differ in their usage and how they are loaded into memory.

An EXE file is typically used to launch a program or an installer. When you double-click on an EXE file, it loads into the computer's memory and begins running the code. An EXE file contains all the resources required to run a program, including related DLL files that are linked to the executable.

A DLL file, on the other hand, is not an executable file itself but instead contains code that can be reused by other programs. When a DLL file is loaded, its code is made available to other programs that use its functionalities. This way, multiple programs can use the same code without having to include it in each program.

In summary, EXE files are used to launch programs, while DLL files are used by programs as a resource for shared code and functions.

Difference between int and int32 in C#

In C#, both int and int32 represent a 32-bit signed integer data type. The only difference is that int is an alias for System.Int32, which is a .NET framework class, whereas int32 is a struct type defined in the System namespace. Therefore, they are interchangeable and can be used interchangeably in most cases.

Differences between Value Type and Reference Type

In C#, data types are divided into two categories: value types and reference types. The main differences between these types are how they are stored and assigned in memory.

Value types are stored on the stack, and each variable contains its own copy of the data. Examples of value types include integers, floating-point numbers, and booleans. When you assign a value type to a variable or pass it as a parameter to a method, a copy of the value is created in memory.

Reference types, on the other hand, are stored on the heap, and variables contain a reference to the memory location where the data is stored. Examples of reference types include classes, arrays, and strings. When you assign a reference type to a variable or pass it as a parameter to a method, you are actually manipulating a reference to the data in memory, rather than the data itself.

Another important difference between these types is how they are treated when passed as method arguments. Value types are passed by value, meaning that a copy of the value is created and passed to the method. Reference types, however, are passed by reference, meaning that a reference to the memory location of the data is passed to the method. This allows the method to modify the data at that memory location.

It's crucial to understand the differences between value types and reference types, as this can affect the performance and behavior of your code.

// Example of value type
int i = 5;
// Example of reference type
string s = "Hello World";

Difference between Managed and Unmanaged Code

Managed code refers to the code that runs under the supervision of the CLR (Common Language Runtime), which provides automatic memory management, type safety, and security. Examples of managed languages include C#, VB.NET, and F#.

On the other hand, unmanaged code refers to the code that runs outside of the CLR and is compiled directly to machine code. Examples of unmanaged languages include C and C++.

One of the main differences between managed and unmanaged code is that managed code is platform-independent, meaning it can be executed on any platform that has a CLR installed, while unmanaged code is platform-specific, meaning it needs to be compiled for a specific platform.

Managed code also offers several benefits over unmanaged code, such as automatic memory management, type safety, and security. However, unmanaged code is often faster and more efficient than managed code, especially when it comes to low-level system programming.

In summary, the choice between managed and unmanaged code depends on the specific requirements of the project, such as speed vs. safety, and platform-independence vs. platform-specificity.

Explanation of Microsoft Intermediate Language

Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) is a low-level, platform-independent programming language used by the .NET Framework. C# and other .NET languages are compiled to MSIL, which is then just-in-time (JIT) compiled to the machine code of the executing computer. MSIL allows for the creation of portable codes that can be executed on any computer that has a .NET framework installed. Additionally, MSIL enables developers to optimize code and improve performance in their applications. In summary, MSIL plays a critical role in the .NET framework by providing a common language that enables developers to write portable applications that can be executed on different devices and platforms.

What is an Assembly?

An assembly in computer programming is a collection of classes, resources and metadata which form a logical unit of functionality. Generally, an assembly is stored in a file (with an .exe or .dll extension) that can be executed directly by the operating system or used by other programs as part of their execution. Assemblies are an important concept in the .NET framework and are essential for creating robust and scalable applications.

//Example of creating an assembly in C#:
using System;

namespace MyAssembly
   public class MyClass
      public void MyMethod()
         Console.WriteLine("Hello world!");

Is ASP.NET different from ASP? If yes, explain how?

ASP (Active Server Pages) and ASP.NET are both web development frameworks developed by Microsoft, but they differ in several ways.

Firstly, ASP.NET is a more advanced version of ASP, with a more modern architecture and improved performance. ASP.NET is built on the .NET framework, which provides a common set of programming languages and libraries for developers to work with.

Secondly, ASP uses scripting languages like VBScript or JScript to dynamically generate web pages, whereas ASP.NET supports multiple programming languages such as C# and Visual Basic, which makes it more accessible to a wider range of developers.

Lastly, ASP.NET offers features like frameworks, libraries, and tools that aid in the development of web applications and services. It also provides support for security, caching, and other advanced features to make web development more efficient and secure.

So to summarize, ASP.NET is a more advanced and modern version of ASP, with improved performance, support for multiple programming languages, and powerful features like frameworks and libraries to aid web development.

Explanation of Role-Based Security in .NET

Role-Based Security is a mechanism in .NET that allows access to various functionalities and resources based on the roles assigned to users or groups. With this mechanism in place, administrators can define different roles and assign them to users as needed, ensuring that each user has access only to the resources and functionalities that are appropriate for their roles.

In .NET, this is implemented using the ASP.NET Membership and Role Provider model, which provides a set of APIs for managing user authentication and authorization. The Membership API is used to validate user credentials and manage user accounts, while the Role Provider API is used to define roles and manage access control based on these roles.

To implement role-based security in your application, you will need to create roles and assign them to users or groups as required. You can then use the Role Provider API to check whether the user has the required role to access the requested resource or functionality. If the user does not have the required role, access will be denied.

Overall, role-based security is a critical security mechanism in .NET applications that allows for granular control over user access to resources and functionalities. By properly implementing this mechanism, you can ensure that your application is secure and that users can only access what they are authorized to access.

Types of Assembly

Assembly language is a low-level programming language that is used for coding computer programs. There are two types of assembly languages:

  • High-Level Assembly Language
  • Low-Level Assembly Language

High-level assembly languages are an intermediary level of language which contain a mixture of low-level and high-level constructs. These languages provide good readability and can improve the development of software systems. On the other hand, Low-level assembly languages are designed for specific hardware architectures and have machine-specific commands, making them difficult in writing a program but highly optimized for executing on computer hardware.

Assembly programming is a unique skill that requires a deep understanding of the inner workings of the CPU and computer architecture. Programmers use assembly language programming for performance-critical tasks where optimization is crucial.

//Example of assembly language in x86
mov ax, 7    ; Load the value 7 into the AX register
add ax, 3    ; Add 3 to the value of the AX register
mov result, ax  ; Store the result in memory location "result"

Order of Events in a Page Life Cycle

The page life cycle refers to the series of stages that a web page goes through from its creation to its eventual end. The order of events in a page life cycle in ASP.NET Web Forms is as follows:

  1. Page request
  2. Start
  3. Page initialization
  4. Load
  5. Postback event handling
  6. Rendering
  7. Unload

Understanding the order of events in the page life cycle can be useful in developing and debugging ASP.NET applications. It allows developers to know at which stage of the life cycle they should perform certain tasks or access certain objects, ensuring that the application runs smoothly and without errors.

What is Garbage Collector?

Garbage Collector is an automatic memory management feature in programming languages that manages the memory allocated to objects. It identifies and removes objects that are no longer in use, freeing up their space in the memory for other objects to use. This helps to prevent memory leaks and optimize the performance of the application. The garbage collector is responsible for freeing the memory used by objects that are no longer reachable or used by the application.

Can Themes be Applied to ASP.NET Applications?

Yes, ASP.NET allows the use of themes to create a consistent and aesthetically pleasing user interface across all pages in a web application. In fact, themes can help improve the user experience and make web applications more visually appealing. By separating the visual presentation from the content of the pages, themes allow for easy modification and updates of the application's appearance. This means that themes can be applied to different pages of the application without having to modify the HTML code of each page individually. Additionally, ASP.NET provides a variety of built-in themes that can be used directly or customized to suit the application's needs.

Cross-Page Posting Explained

Cross-page posting is a technique used in web development where data submitted on one page can be accessed and processed on another page. This is achieved by posting the data from one page to another page.

For example, a user fills out a form on Page A and submits the form. The form data is then posted to Page B where it is processed and used to generate a response.

Cross-page posting is commonly used in scenarios where data needs to be validated or processed before being displayed to the user on a different page. It is important to note that cross-page posting should only be used when necessary, as it can lead to potential security issues.

What is a Delegate in .NET?

A Delegate is a type in .NET that represents a reference to a method. It allows you to treat a method as an object that can be passed around and executed at a later time. In other words, a delegate is a pointer to a function that enables you to call a method as if it were a regular function.

Delegates are used extensively in event handling, callbacks, and asynchronous programming, among other things. They are also commonly used to define anonymous methods and lambda expressions, which are useful in LINQ queries. By using a delegate, you can encapsulate a method call and pass it as an argument to another method or class, making code more modular and flexible.

Overall, Delegates are a powerful and versatile feature of the .NET Framework that allow you to write efficient and reusable code.

//Example of a Delegate in C# :
// Declare a delegate
public delegate void MyDelegate(string message);

public class MyClass
   // Declare a method that matches the signature of the delegate
   public void MyMethod(string message)

public class Program
   public static void Main(string[] args)
      // Instantiate the delegate
      MyClass obj = new MyClass();
      MyDelegate del = new MyDelegate(obj.MyMethod);

      // Call the delegate
      del("Hello World!");

Available Security Controls in ASP.NET

In ASP.NET, there are various security controls available to ensure the security of web applications. Some of them include:

1. Authentication controls: This ensures that only authorized users can access certain parts of the application by validating their identities. 2. Authorization controls: This control provides permission-based access to application resources, ensuring that authenticated users can only access the resources they are authorized to view. 3. Validation controls: This ensures that input data entered by users are validated and screened to prevent malicious attacks or injections. 4. Role-based security controls: This allows users to perform specific actions based on their roles in the application, helping to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data. 5. Membership and profile controls: This allows user account creation and management as well as the storage of user profile information. 6. Cryptography controls: This provides encryption and decryption capabilities for sensitive data. 7. Session management controls: This ensures that user session data is managed securely to prevent session hijacking or theft.

Incorporating these security controls in ASP.NET applications is essential to prevent cyber attacks and ensure the integrity of sensitive data.

Understanding Boxing and Unboxing in .NET

In .NET, boxing is the process of converting a value type to a reference type, while unboxing is the process of converting a reference type back to its original value type.

Boxing occurs when a value type, such as an int or a double, is assigned to a variable of type object. The value is then stored on the managed heap and a reference to it is returned.

Unboxing occurs when the reference to the object is cast back to its original value type, which involves copying the value from the heap onto the stack. This process can be expensive in terms of performance, so it's important to avoid unnecessary boxing and unboxing wherever possible.

To avoid boxing, you can use generic collections like List instead of non-generic collections like ArrayList. You can also use structures instead of classes where appropriate, since structures are value types and don't require boxing.

Overall, understanding boxing and unboxing in .NET is crucial for writing efficient and high-performance code.

What is MIME in .NET?

In .NET, MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a standard way of encoding and decoding binary files like images, audio, video, and other documents that can be sent over the internet. It is used to identify the type of file, and what actions or applications should be used to process it. MIME types can be set through HTTP headers or in file extensions. In .NET, the MimeMapping class can be used to get the MIME type for a given file name.

Understanding the Purpose of Manifest in the .NET Framework

The manifest in the .NET framework is a file that contains metadata about an assembly, providing information about its version, security requirements, dependencies, and other details. The manifest is generated by the compiler when an assembly is built and includes essential information that the runtime needs to execute the code correctly.

The manifest ensures that assemblies are self-describing. This means that the manifest can be used to examine the contents of the assembly, including the classes, properties, and methods it contains. This information is vital for the runtime to resolve references between assemblies, check for compatibility between versions of assemblies, and enforce proper security permissions and policies.

In summary, the manifest is an essential component of the .NET framework that allows the runtime to understand and execute code within assemblies correctly.

Types of Cookies in ASP.NET

Cookies in ASP.NET are small text files that are stored on the client's computer to retain information about the user or website. There are two types of cookies available in ASP.NET:

1. Persistent Cookies: These cookies remain on the client's computer even after the user closes their browser. They are used to retain user preferences and login information for future visits.

2. Session Cookies: These cookies are deleted automatically when the user closes their browser. They are used to retain information about the user's current session on the website, such as items in a shopping cart or user details during a checkout process.

Both types of cookies can be set and retrieved using the HttpCookie class in ASP.NET. It is important to note that cookies can be disabled by the user, so it is important to provide an alternative method of storing user data in case cookies are not available. Additionally, cookies should be used responsibly to avoid collecting and storing sensitive information about the user.

Understanding the Meaning of CAS in .NET

CAS in .NET stands for Code Access Security. It is a security feature that allows administrators to define security policies in .NET applications at the code level. It works by controlling the actions that code can perform based on the permissions granted to it by the security policy. This ensures that code can only access resources and perform actions that it has been authorized to do so. CAS is a crucial part of .NET security architecture and helps in preventing malicious code from causing harm to the application.

Understanding the appSettings section in the web.config file

The appSettings section in the web.config file is a configuration section that allows developers to store key-value pairs of application settings. These settings can be accessed throughout the application using a simple API. It is commonly used to store settings such as connection strings, error messages, and other application-specific settings. The appSettings section can be accessed using the ConfigurationManager.AppSettings property, which returns a NameValueCollection object that can be used to retrieve individual settings. It's important to note that any values stored in the appSettings section are not encrypted, so sensitive information should not be stored here.

Differences between Abstract Class and Interface

In Java, an abstract class is a class that can't be instantiated but can have both abstract and non-abstract methods. On the other hand, an interface is a contract that guarantees the availability of certain methods, but it doesn't provide any implementation of the methods.

Some of the key differences between an abstract class and an interface are:

- An abstract class can have constructors while an interface can't. - An abstract class can have member variables that can be inherited while an interface can't. - An abstract class can have implemented methods while an interface can't. - A class can implement multiple interfaces but can extend only one abstract class.

Types of Memories Supported in the .NET Framework

In the .NET Framework, there are three types of memories supported:

1. Stack Memory: It is used for storing value type variables and is managed directly by the CPU.

2. Heap Memory: It is used for storing reference type variables and is managed by the Common Language Runtime (CLR).

3. Large Object Heap (LOH): It is a special heap used for storing large objects that are greater than 85,000 bytes in size.

Understanding the different types of memory and their usage in .NET is crucial for building efficient and reliable applications.

Explanation of Localization and Globalization

Localization refers to the process of adapting a product or service to meet the language, cultural, and other specific requirements of a particular country or region. This includes the translation of content, modification of visual elements, and adherence to local regulations and practices.

On the other hand, globalization aims to create products or services that are intended to be used by people worldwide, regardless of their language or culture. This involves designing products that have universal appeal, using standardized content and visual elements, and ensuring that they comply with relevant international standards.

In software development, both localization and globalization are important considerations when creating applications that can be used by people from different parts of the world. By localizing or globalizing their products, businesses can increase their reach and make their products more accessible to a wider audience.

Parameters that Control Connection Pooling Behaviors

Connection pooling is controlled by several parameters, including:

  initialPoolSize - the number of connections initially created when the pool is initialized<br>
  maxPoolSize - the maximum number of connections that can be created in the pool<br>
  minPoolSize - the minimum number of connections that must be maintained in the pool<br>
  maxIdleTime - the maximum time a connection can be idle (not used) before it is removed from the pool<br>
  acquireIncrement - the number of connections to be created when the pool is exhausted and more are needed<br>
  acquireRetryAttempts - the number of times to attempt to acquire a connection before giving up<br>
  acquireRetryDelay - the amount of time to wait between attempts to acquire a connection<br>

Adjusting these parameters can help improve the performance and efficiency of your application's connection pooling.

Understanding MDI and SDI

MDI (Multiple Document Interface) and SDI (Single Document Interface) are terms used to describe how an application manages its interaction with documents.

In MDI, an application can have multiple documents open at the same time in one window, each contained within a separate child window. The user can switch between the open documents by clicking on their corresponding child window tab.

In contrast, in SDI, each document is opened in a separate instance of the application, meaning that each document has its own window. This means that the user cannot switch between different documents within the same window, but it does mean that the user can have multiple instances of the same application open at the same time.

The choice between MDI and SDI depends on the needs and requirements of the application and its end-users.

The Different Parts of an Assembly

An assembly in .NET typically consists of four parts:

  1. Manifest - contains metadata about the assembly such as the version number and security requirements.
  2. Intermediate Language (IL) Code - contains the compiled code that can run on any computer with the .NET framework installed.
  3. Resources - files such as images or text that are embedded in the assembly and can be accessed programmatically.
  4. Assembly Manifest - a file that describes the types and members in the assembly and specifies the versions and dependencies upon other assemblies.

Understanding the different parts of an assembly is essential for developing and deploying .NET applications.

.NET Core: Overview

.NET Core is an open-source, cross-platform, and high-performance framework for building modern cloud-based applications, microservices, library, and console applications. It is developed and maintained by Microsoft and supports various operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and macOS. It contains a set of runtime, libraries, and compilers that allow developers to build and run applications for different platforms and architectures. Unlike the .NET Framework, .NET Core is modular, lightweight, and can be installed side-by-side with other versions of .NET Core on a machine.

What is .NET Core used for?

.NET Core is a free and open-source platform that can be used to develop different types of applications, including web applications, desktop applications, and gaming applications. It is used to build cross-platform applications that can run on Windows, Linux, and macOS operating systems. It supports multiple programming languages such as C#, F#, and Visual Basic.NET. .NET Core provides many features including high-performance, scalability, and security, making it a popular choice for building modern applications.

C# and F# Programming Languages

C# and F# are two programming languages used in software development. C# is a high-level, general-purpose language developed by Microsoft and used primarily for building Windows desktop applications, games, and web applications. F# is a functional-first, cross-platform language developed by Microsoft for building scalable web applications, data analytics, machine learning, and scientific computing. Both languages are widely used and have a strong community of developers contributing to their growth and evolution.

Purpose of WebHostBuilder()

The WebHostBuilder() is a method in ASP.NET Core that is used to create and configure a new instance of the web host. The web host is responsible for starting and managing the web application. The purpose of the WebHostBuilder() method is to configure the web host, setup middleware pipelines and set up the required services for the application. This method is also used for configuring Kestrel, the cross-platform web server for ASP.NET Core applications. WebHostBuilder() method is a very important part of the ASP.NET Core application startup process and is used to configure and prepare the application for runtime.

What are Zero Waste Collectors?

Zero Waste Collectors refer to individuals or organizations that aim to reduce waste production and promote sustainable waste management practices. Their goal is to divert waste from landfills by implementing a system of reusing, recycling, and composting. The term "zero waste" is used to describe a philosophy that advocates for the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused.

Understanding the IGCTOCLR Interface

The IGCTOCLR interface is a communication protocol used to send and receive commands between two devices. It stands for "Input, Ground, Clock, Transmit, Output, Clear" and is commonly used in electronic devices such as LCD displays and microcontrollers.

The interface works by sending data packets from the transmitting device to the receiving device using a clock signal. The data packets consist of a set of binary values that represent the command being sent.

The IGCTOCLR interface is a widely supported protocol, and many programming languages have libraries and functions to work with this interface.

Generating SQL Scripts in .NET Core

SQL scripts can be generated in .NET Core for various purposes such as creating or updating database schema, deploying a database to a different environment, and backing up data. The generated script can be executed on the target database to make changes or create a new database schema. This functionality is useful for developers who need to keep their database schema up-to-date with their application.

Types of Common Type System (CTS)

The Common Type System (CTS) is a set of data types and guidelines used in .NET Framework to ensure compatibility between programming languages. CTS can be categorized into two types:

1. Value Types - These types hold their value on the stack. Integers, Booleans, and Floating point numbers are some examples of value types.

2. Reference Types - These types hold a reference to their value which is stored in the heap. Objects, Arrays, Strings, and Delegates are some examples of reference types.

Value types have a fixed memory allocation and are created and destroyed quickly. Reference types have a variable memory allocation and require garbage collection which adds overhead.

Both value and reference types can have modifiers such as const, readonly, and volatile to modify their behavior. It is important to understand how value types and reference types work to write efficient and reliable code in .NET Framework.

Differences between .NET Core and Mono

.NET Core and Mono are both open-source, cross-platform implementations of the .NET framework. However, there are some key differences between them:

  • Development and Support: .NET Core is developed by Microsoft and has official support from Microsoft, while Mono is an independent project initially developed by Xamarin (now part of Microsoft) and has community support.
  • Size and Performance: .NET Core is built specifically for performance and optimized for size, making it more lightweight and faster than Mono.
  • Compatibility: .NET Core is designed to be consistent across Windows, macOS, and Linux, while Mono has broader platform support, including some mobile and gaming platforms.
  • APIs: .NET Core includes APIs for building modern cloud applications, while Mono focuses more on compatibility with the .NET framework.

In summary, .NET Core is a more modern, performance-focused implementation of the .NET framework with official support from Microsoft, while Mono is a broader, more established cross-platform implementation with community support.

// Example usage of .NET Core:
dotnet run myApp.csproj

// Example usage of Mono:
mono myApp.exe

Understanding Transfer-Encoding

Transfer-Encoding is a HTTP header attribute that specifies the form by which the message body of the HTTP request or response is transmitted over the network. This header type makes it possible to send different styles of message bodies while preserving the original content length.

Transfer-Encoding identifies the method used in transforming the message body using various encoding algorithms. The recipient server will know it needs to decode the message body as soon as it identifies the Transfer-Encoding header.

Some common examples of Transfer-Encoding header attributes include chunked, gzip, compress, and identity. Each of these attributes transforms the message body differently and is used depending on the type of content being sent.

Overall, the Transfer-Encoding header attribute significantly increases network efficiency by letting clients and servers implement data compression while transmitting messages over the web.

Are 'Debug' and 'Trace' the same?

In computer programming, 'Debug' and 'Trace' are not the same. Debugging refers to the process of identifying and fixing errors in code, while tracing refers to monitoring the execution of a program to observe its behavior. Therefore, even though both are used for troubleshooting, they serve different purposes. It is important to use them appropriately and understand the differences between the two.

Understanding MSBuild in .NET Core

MSBuild is a build tool designed mainly for .NET Framework. However, it is also used in .NET Core to execute various commands that deal with projects and solutions. In .NET Core, MSBuild has been enhanced to support cross-platform development and to work seamlessly with different operating systems, such as Windows, Linux, and macOS. It is capable of building, publishing, and packaging .NET Core projects and solutions, as well as generating assemblies and NuGet packages. MSBuild is an essential tool for .NET Core developers and is used extensively in building, testing, and deploying .NET applications.

Overview of Universal Windows Platform (UWP) Apps in .NET Core

Universal Windows Platform (UWP) Apps are applications developed using the .NET Core framework that can run on any Windows 10 device. These apps provide a consistent user experience across different devices, like desktops, tablets, and phones. UWP apps are designed to be secure, scalable, and optimized for performance. They can be developed using a variety of programming languages, including C#, C++, and JavaScript.

With UWP apps, developers can utilize the same code base to create applications that can run on any device supporting Windows 10, thus reducing development time and increasing productivity. UWP apps are available in the Microsoft Store, making them easy to find and install on different devices.

The .NET Core framework provides developers with a wide range of libraries and tools for UWP app development, enabling them to create modern and responsive applications that can run seamlessly on different screen sizes and devices. With the ability to integrate with other Windows 10 features like Cortana and Live Tiles, UWP apps can provide an immersive and engaging user experience.

In conclusion, Universal Windows Platform (UWP) Apps provide developers with a powerful platform to create modern and responsive applications that can run on any Windows 10 device, offering a consistent user experience across multiple platforms.

Overview of .NET Core Components

.NET Core is an open-source, cross-platform framework that is used to develop modern applications for various platforms such as Windows, macOS, and Linux. It provides a set of components that can be used to build scalable, secure, and high-performance applications. Here are some of the key components of .NET Core:

1. Common Language Runtime (CLR): CLR executes the .NET Core code and ensures that the code is type-safe, memory-safe, and secure.

2. Base Class Library (BCL): BCL offers a set of classes, interfaces, and value types that can be used to build applications in .NET Core. It includes a wide range of namespaces such as System, System.IO, System.Threading, and more.

3. Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler: JIT compiles the .NET Core code on-the-fly, which helps to improve the performance of the application.

4. Globalization and Localization: These components ensure that .NET Core applications can be easily localized and globalized by providing support for different languages, cultures, and regions.

5. Entity Framework Core: This component is used for data access in .NET Core applications.

6. ASP.NET Core: ASP.NET Core is a web framework that allows developers to build web applications using .NET Core. It includes middleware, MVC framework, dependency injection, and more.

7. Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF): MEF provides a way to dynamically load and discover components in .NET Core applications.

8. Language Integrated Query (LINQ): LINQ is a set of extensions that allow developers to write queries using C# or VB.NET for data sources.

In summary, .NET Core provides a vast set of components that can be used to build modern applications for multiple platforms.

Middlewares in .NET Core

In .NET Core, middleware refers to a software component that is positioned between an application's request processing pipeline and the server that processes the request. It provides a way to execute custom code throughout the request-response pipeline and handle HTTP requests and responses.

Middleware is responsible for encapsulating request and response processing logic, which includes but is not limited to security, caching, logging, and error handling. It is designed to be chainable, which allows multiple middlewares to be combined in a pipeline to process incoming requests.

In summary, middleware in the .NET Core framework is a modular, reusable software component that enables custom request-response processing, enhances an application's functionality, and improves its overall performance and security.

Differences between .NET Core and .NET Framework

.NET Core:

  • Open-source and cross-platform
  • Modular framework
  • Requires runtime environment for each application
  • Optimized for modern cloud-based applications
  • Supports only a subset of .NET Framework libraries
  • Developed using Visual Studio Code or Visual Studio

.NET Framework:

  • Proprietary and only runs on Windows
  • Monolithic framework
  • Included in the Windows operating system
  • Largely used for traditional desktop applications and older web applications
  • Supports a large number of libraries and frameworks
  • Developed using Visual Studio

Note: It's important to choose the appropriate framework for your specific project needs.

Explain Explicit Compilation (Ahead of Time Compilation)

Explicit Compilation, also known as Ahead of Time (AOT) Compilation, is a process that converts the source code of a program into machine code before the program is ever run. This is different from Just-in-Time (JIT) Compilation, where the conversion from source code to machine code happens at runtime.

AOT Compilation offers several benefits over JIT Compilation. Firstly, it allows for better performance, as the machine code generated ahead of time runs faster than compiled code generated on-the-fly by the JIT compiler. Secondly, it can reduce a program's startup time, as the system does not need to spend time compiling the code before running it.

However, AOT Compilation also has some disadvantages. For example, it requires more disk space and may take longer to compile the code initially. Additionally, it does not allow for dynamic optimization, which means that the code cannot be optimized based on run-time data.

Overall, AOT Compilation can be a useful tool in optimizing the performance of certain types of programs, particularly those with long-running processes or large start-up times.

.NET Core vs .NET Standard: When to Use Which?

When deciding between using .NET Core or .NET Standard for your class library project, it is important to consider the platforms your library will target. Use .NET Core if you are developing a library to be used in an application that will run on .NET Core or .NET Framework. Use .NET Standard if you are developing a library that will be used across multiple platforms, including .NET Core, .NET Framework, and Xamarin. It ultimately depends on the specific needs and goals of your project.

Overview of .NET Core SDK

.NET Core SDK refers to a free and open-source software development framework that primarily supports the creation of cross-platform applications. It provides a set of tools and libraries for developers to create web, mobile, and desktop apps that run on various operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and macOS. The .NET Core SDK includes the .NET runtime, libraries, and runtime environment, as well as command-line tools and plugins for popular development environments like Visual Studio and Visual Studio Code. The SDK supports various programming languages, including C#, VB.NET, and F#. Developers can use it to build modern, high-performance, and scalable apps for different platforms.

Distinguishing ASP.NET Core from .NET Core

ASP.NET Core is a framework for building web applications, whereas .NET Core is a cross-platform development framework that can be used for building different types of applications including web, desktop, and mobile applications.

One way to differentiate the two is that ASP.NET Core includes everything that .NET Core does and adds additional components for web development such as Razor views, routing, and middleware.

Another difference is that ASP.NET Core relies heavily on the concept of middleware, which is a processing pipeline that can modify requests and responses. This is important for building web applications that can handle cross-cutting concerns like authentication, logging, and error handling.

In summary, while both ASP.NET Core and .NET Core share many similarities, ASP.NET Core provides additional components and uses middleware for building web applications.

Program to Calculate the Addition of Two Numbers

#include <iostream>
using namespace std; 

int main() {
    int num1, num2, sum; // declare variables for two numbers and sum
    cout << "Enter the first number: "; // display message for user input
    cin >> num1; // receive user input for first number
    cout << "Enter the second number: "; // display message for user input
    cin >> num2; // receive user input for second number
    sum = num1 + num2; // add two numbers and store sum in 'sum' variable
    cout << "The sum of " << num1 << " and " << num2 << " is " << sum << endl; // display output result
    return 0;

This program takes two integer numbers as input from the user, adds them together and displays the sum as output.

Technical Interview Guides

Here are guides for technical interviews, categorized from introductory to advanced levels.

View All

Best MCQ

As part of their written examination, numerous tech companies necessitate candidates to complete multiple-choice questions (MCQs) assessing their technical aptitude.

View MCQ's
Made with love
This website uses cookies to make IQCode work for you. By using this site, you agree to our cookie policy

Welcome Back!

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign in
Recover lost password
Or log in with

Create a Free Account

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign up
Or sign up with
By signing up, you agree to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. You also agree to receive product-related marketing emails from IQCode, which you can unsubscribe from at any time.