50 Best Multiple Choice Questions and Answers to Test Your Knowledge in Cybersecurity

Cyber Security: Understanding the Basics

Cyber security refers to the methods and processes used to protect internet-connected systems from cyber attacks, which can compromise hardware, software, and data.

The term "cyber security" is composed of two words: "cyber" refers to computers, systems, networks, programs, or data, while "security" refers to the protection of these elements.

There are various reasons why cyber security is crucial, including protection of private, intellectual, and banking or financial data, ensuring national security, promoting global economy, and protecting sensitive information.

What is an Information System?

An Information System (IS) is a software designed to organize and analyze data, and comprises several components:

  • System resources: These are the physical and virtual resources that a system uses, such as hardware, software, and data.
  • People: This component consists of two parties: specialists who design and implement IS and end-users who interact with the system on a daily basis.
  • System activity: This refers to the operations performed by the IS, which include inputting, storing, processing, outputting, and controlling and maintaining data.

Development of Information Systems

The development of IS follows a process similar to that of application development, and can involve the following models:

  • Classical waterfall model
  • Prototyping model
  • Spiral model
  • Incremental model

Cyber Security MCQs

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) related to Cyber Security:

1. Which of the following is NOT a component of Information Systems?
A. People
B. System resources
C. System activity
D. Cyber security
Answer: D


This is an incorrect answer. The correct term which denotes that only authorized users are capable of accessing the information is known as confidentiality.


# This function returns the correct answer for the given question
def get_correct_answer():
    return "B) The term which denotes that only authorized users are capable of accessing the information is known as confidentiality."

Data Encryption for Confidentiality

In data security, encryption is used to protect confidential information from unauthorized access or theft. By converting data into an encoded format using special algorithms, only those with the proper encryption key can decrypt and access the original information. This ensures confidentiality by keeping sensitive data secure from prying eyes. Therefore, the statement is True.

Identifying a Debian-Based OS with 2 Virtual Machines and Data Preservation

Out of the four operating systems mentioned, only Whonix has two virtual machines and a focus on preserving users' data.

Ubuntu is a Debian-based OS; however, it does not advertise a focus on data preservation or come with pre-configured virtual machines by default.

Fedora is not based on Debian, so it is not an appropriate answer.

Kubuntu is Debian-based and comes with pre-installed virtual machines, but it does not market itself as focused on data preservation.

Therefore, the correct answer is Whonix.

Identifying the Oldest Phone Hacking Technique

Phreaking is considered the oldest phone hacking technique used by hackers to make free calls.

Spamming, cracking, and phishing are all modern hacking techniques that do not involve making free calls through the phone system.

Phreakers manipulate the phone system to make free long-distance calls or to gain access to voicemail boxes. This technique became popular in the 1970s and 1980s.

Answer: B) Phreaking

Platform for Cloud Data Protection

Cloud workload protection platforms are the platforms that have been designed and deployed to ensure the safety and security of information in cloud services. These platforms are specifically designed to protect cloud workloads from cybersecurity threats such as unauthorized access and malware attacks that could compromise the confidentiality and integrity of data stored in the cloud.

// Example of using cloud workload protection platforms in code:

  CloudWorkloadProtection protection = new CloudWorkloadProtection();

Identifying a Fraudulent Server Attack with a Relay Address

One type of attack that involves the use of a fraudulent server with a relay address is Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack. This type of attack occurs when an attacker intercepts communication between two parties and relays messages between them, all while making the victims believe they are communicating directly with each other.

During a MITM attack, the attacker sets up a fake server and then relays messages between the victim and the actual server, allowing them to intercept and modify any information sent between them. The fake server will use a relay address, which is typically a third-party address, to mask its identity from the victim.

It is important to protect yourself against MITM attacks by using secure communication channels and being aware of any suspicious activity.

// Example code to demonstrate how to protect against MITM attacks 

// Use HTTPS instead of HTTP for secure communication

if (request.isSecure()) {

// process request


Identifying the Active Directory Port in Windows 2000

To connect to Active Directory in Windows 2000, the port used is 389. This port is commonly known as LDAP, which stands for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

It's important to note that when accessing Active Directory over the internet, it's recommended to use a secure connection. This can be done by using port 636, also known as LDAPS.

To summarize, the correct answer is option D) 389.

Techniques for Concealing Information in Images

Steganography is a technique used to hide information inside an image.

  • Image rendering refers to the process of generating visual representations from digital data.
  • Rootkits are software that can be used by attackers to gain access and control a computer system without being detected by typical security measures.
  • Bitmapping involves the storage of digital images as a grid of pixels, where each pixel corresponds to a specific color value.

In summary, steganography is the preferred method of concealing information within an image.

Avoiding Browser-Based Hacking

Out of the following options, the most effective method for avoiding browser-based hacking is:

Remote browser access

It is important to note that the other options can contribute to a safer browsing experience, but they are not as reliable in preventing hacking attempts as remote browser access.

Understanding EDR

Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) is a cybersecurity term that refers to the detection, investigation, and response to suspicious activities and threats on endpoints or network devices. It involves the use of software tools and technologies to identify potential security incidents and respond to them promptly.

EDR helps organizations to improve their incident response capabilities, minimize the risk of data breaches and other cyber threats, and ensure that their networks and endpoints are secure and protected at all times.

Network Traffic Analysis

In the field of network security, network traffic analysis is used to monitor traffic and analyze network flow. This technology is important for detecting network anomalies and security events early on. It helps organizations to identify security risks, troubleshoot network problems, and optimize network performance.

Managed detection and response, cloud access security broker and network security firewall are other security technologies used in the field, but they don't specifically focus on network traffic analysis.

Category of Compromising Confidential Information

In terms of security, compromising confidential information is considered a threat.

Threats refer to any potential danger that could exploit a vulnerability and cause harm to a system or network by stealing or modifying sensitive data. Other examples of threats include malware, social engineering, and denial-of-service attacks.

Category of Lack of Access Control Policy

In terms of cybersecurity, the lack of access control policy falls under the category of vulnerability. This is because without proper access controls, sensitive information and resources can be easily accessed by unauthorized individuals, making the system vulnerable to attacks and breaches. It is important for organizations to have a strong access control policy in place to mitigate potential cybersecurity risks.

// Sample code for implementing access control:
// Assume a simple web application with user login functionality
if (user.isAuthenticated()) {
    if (user.isAdmin()) {
        // grant full access to all resources
    } else if (user.isRegularUser()) {
        // grant limited access to specific resources
} else {
    // redirect to login page

In the above code, access to resources is granted based on the role of the user. Administrators have full access to all resources, while regular users have limited access to specific resources. If the user is not authenticated, they are redirected to the login page, ensuring that only authorized individuals can access the system.

Identifying Computer Threat Classes

In terms of computer threats, one of the class is the Denial of Service (DOS) attack. This type of attack involves overwhelming a system or website with an excess of traffic to the point that it can no longer function.

Common Software Used to Detect and Protect Against Viruses

One essential software employed by users to detect and avoid viruses is antivirus. This program is designed to inspect files and programs on a computer system for any malicious content and alert users about potential threats. Other options listed in the question, such as adware and malware, are forms of malicious content that antivirus software is designed to detect and remove.

//Example of using an antivirus library to scan a file in Python:

import antivirus_library

def scan_file(file_path):
    virus_database = antivirus_library.get_database()
    file_scan_results = virus_database.scan_file(file_path)
    return file_scan_results

Identifying Violation of Principle in a Computer

When a computer is no longer accessible, this is known as a violation of its availability principle.

The other options, access control and confidentiality, refer to different principles of computer security. Access control is about controlling who has access to certain resources or information, while confidentiality is about keeping sensitive information private.

Tools Used in Wi-Fi Hacking

Aircrack-ng is one of the commonly used tools in Wi-Fi hacking. Wireshark is another tool which is also used for network analysis and troubleshooting, but it can also be used for capturing packets in a Wi-Fi network. Norton, on the other hand, is an antivirus software and is not used for hacking purposes.

Therefore, the correct answer is A) Aircrack-ng.

# Python script for Wi-Fi hacking using Aircrack-ng tool

# Import required libraries
import os
import sys

# Get Wi-Fi network name and interface from user
wifi_name = input("Enter Wi-Fi network name: ")
wifi_interface = input("Enter Wi-Fi interface (e.g. wlan0): ")

# Use Aircrack-ng tool to capture packets on Wi-Fi network
os.system("airodump-ng " + wifi_interface + " -w " + wifi_name)

# Obtain handshake from captured packets
os.system("aircrack-ng " + wifi_name + "-01.cap")

# Attempt to crack Wi-Fi password using dictionary attack
wordlist_path = input("Enter path to wordlist: ")
os.system("aircrack-ng " + wifi_name + "-01.cap -w " + wordlist_path)

Number of Scanning Types in Cyber Security

The total number of scanning types in cyber security is 3.

// Code Example
int numScanningTypes = 3;

It is important to understand each of these scanning types in order to properly secure systems and networks. The three types of scanning are:

  1. Vulnerability Scanning
  2. Port Scanning
  3. Malware Scanning

Types of Port Scanning

Syn Stealth


Null Scan

, and

Xmas Tree Scan

are all correct types of port scanning. However,

Cloud scan

is an incorrect type of scanning.

Identification of the First Computer Virus

The first computer virus to be identified among the given options is option B) Creeper.

// Code to display the identified first computer virus
var firstVirus = "Creeper";
console.log("The first identified computer virus is: " + firstVirus);

Cyber Security Elements

In the domain of cyber security, the below mentioned elements are considered important:

  • Network Security

  • Operational Security

  • Application Security

Hence, the correct option is (D): All of the above are considered elements of cyber security.


There is no code for this question.

Wi-Fi Security Protocol

In Wi-Fi security, the protocol mainly used is WPA2.

Option (c) is the correct answer.

// No code to optimize. 

Full Form of TCP/IP

The full form of TCP/IP is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

// No code to optimize/update

Importance of Response and Transit Time in Measuring Longevity

Response and Transit Time are two important metrics used to evaluate the longevity of a system. Specifically, they measure the time it takes for a request to be processed and for a response to be sent back.

In the context of system reliability, response time refers to how fast a system reacts to a request - the quicker the response time, the better the performance. Transit time, on the other hand, refers to the time it takes for data to travel from the sender to the receiver. This is an important metric for evaluating the overall performance of a system.

By monitoring response and transit times, system administrators can gain insight into how well a system is performing and whether it is meeting the needs of its users. Additionally, these metrics can be used to identify potential performance bottlenecks and trends over time, which can help inform decisions about system upgrades and improvements.

In conclusion, response and transit time are crucial metrics for measuring the longevity of a system and its ability to provide reliable and efficient performance over time.

// Example code for measuring response time using Python's Requests library
import requests
import time

start_time = time.time()
response = requests.get("https://www.example.com")
end_time = time.time()

response_time = end_time - start_time

print("Response Time: ", response_time)

Instances of Open Design

Both the DVD player and CSS can be considered instances of open design because their documentation is publicly available for anyone to access.

In terms of the DVD player, the design and standards for DVD players are maintained by the DVD Forum, which is a group of companies that work together to develop and promote the DVD format. The specifications for DVD players are publicly available on their website, making it an example of open design.

CSS, or Cascading Style Sheets, is also an example of open design. The CSS standard is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and the full specifications for CSS are publicly available on their website. This allows anyone to learn and use CSS in their website design.

Overall, both the DVD player and CSS can be considered instances of open design due to their publicly available documentation.

// No code provided in the given statement.


The answer to the question is option C) Plain text. Cipher algorithms are used to encode and decode plain text information to protect it from unauthorized accessing. The plain text is transformed into cipher text using encryption algorithms, and the cipher text is transformed back into plain text using decryption algorithms. This process ensures the confidentiality of the message being transmitted.

What does CHAP stand for?

CHAP stands for Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocols.

    // Sample code demonstrating CHAP authentication
    function chapAuthentication(username, password) {
        // client sends username to server
        // server challenges with a random string
        const challenge = generateChallenge();
        // client encrypts password with challenge
        const encryptedPassword = encrypt(password + challenge);
        // client sends username and encrypted password to server
        // server encrypts password with challenge
        const encryptedServerPassword = encrypt(fetchPasswordFromDB(username) + challenge);
        // if both passwords match, authentication is successful
        if (encryptedPassword === encryptedServerPassword) {
            return true;
        } else {
            return false;

Identifying Malware that does not replicate or clone through infection

Out of the given malware options, the correct answer is Trojans. Unlike viruses and worms, trojans do not self-replicate or clone themselves. Instead, they appear to be legitimate software and trick users into downloading and installing them. Once installed, trojans can cause severe damage to the system, steal sensitive information, and allow unauthorized access to the system.

// Sample code to prevent Trojan attacks
// Install robust anti-virus software and keep it updated
// Avoid downloading software from untrusted websites
// Regularly update operating system and applications to patch security vulnerabilities

Identifying Security Threats

The following code contains a function that checks a list of features and identifies which ones violate cyber security:

def check_security_threats(features_list):
    security_violations = []
    for feature in features_list:
        if feature.lower() == "attack":
    if len(security_violations) == 0:
        print("No security threats found.")
        print(f"Security threats found: {security_violations}")


The function takes a list of features as its input parameter. It then iterates through each feature in the list and checks if the feature is an "attack". If it is, the feature is added to a separate list called "security_violations". If no security threats are found, the function returns a message saying so. Otherwise, it returns a message listing the security threats that were found.

Example usage:

check_security_threats(["compliance", "attack", "exploit"])


Security threats found: ['attack']

Understanding the Legal Form of Hacking

In the world of cybersecurity, there are various forms of hacking, and they are not created equal. Ethical hacking is a legal form of hacking that is authorized by an organization to identify vulnerabilities in their information systems. Its primary objective is to determine weaknesses that cybercriminals may exploit and provide a report to improve security measures and protect the organization's sensitive data.

On the other hand, cracking or non-ethical hacking is the illegal form of hacking. This type of hacking is done without permission from the organization, and its main objective is to gain unauthorized access to information systems and cause harm. Cybercriminals use this type of hacking to steal sensitive data, personal information, and intellectual property.

Another form of hacking is hacktivism, which involves hacking into an organization's website or information system to promote a social or political agenda. While hacktivists claim that their actions are for the greater good, their activities border on the illegal, and they can cause significant harm to the organization.

It is essential to understand the different forms of hacking to distinguish legal and illegal activities. Ethical hacking plays a crucial role in identifying vulnerabilities early and thwarting cyber threats. Therefore, organizations need to employ ethical hacking practices as part of their overall cybersecurity strategy.

// Sample code for ethical hacking // 

Definition of Malware

In computing, malware refers to any type of software that is designed to harm computer systems, steal data, or carry out other malicious actions without the user's knowledge or consent. This can include viruses, worms, Trojans, ransomware, spyware, adware, and other types of malicious software.

It's important to have anti-virus and anti-malware software installed on your computer in order to protect yourself from these malicious programs.

Identification of the Least Strong Security Encryption

    The least strong security encryption among the options provided is WEP.

To ensure proper network security, it is important to use strong encryption methods. Among the given options, WEP is the least secure because it uses a weak key structure that is easy to intercept and crack. WPA is more secure than WEP, and WPA2 is an even stronger encryption method. WPA3 is currently the strongest encryption method available for wireless networks.

Identifying a Weak Security Protocol

The SMTP security protocol is not considered strong.

SSL, SFTP, and HTTPS are strong security protocols.

To ensure secure communications, it's best to use strong security protocols like SSL, SFTP, or HTTPS.

// Example of strong security protocols usage
import ssl
ftp = ssl.wrap_socket(socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM), 
ftp.connect(('localhost', 8888))

Unsecured Mail Transferring Methodology

The POP3 protocol is not a secured mail transferring methodology.

// Code demonstrating the use of POP3 to transfer mails
import poplib

mailServer = poplib.POP3('mail.example.com')

num_of_mails = len(mailServer.list()[1])
for i in range(num_of_mails):
    for j in mailServer.retr(i+1)[1]:


Network-level encryption using IPSec

IPSec is the protocol that is used for encrypting data at the network level. This protocol provides a secure channel between two devices over the Internet, enabling them to communicate securely by encrypting the data during transmission.

IPSec stands for Internet Protocol Security and is used to provide a secure communication link between two devices. It is a popular protocol for VPN connections and helps ensure the confidentiality and integrity of data. Compared to other protocols like HTTPS, SMTP, and S/MIME, IPSec works at a lower level of the network model and can secure all types of IP packets, including voice and video traffic.

To use IPSec, both devices must support the protocol and have the required settings configured. IPSec can be used in different modes to provide different levels of security. With proper configuration and management, IPSec can greatly improve the security of network communication.

What does PCT stand for?

PCT stands for Private Communication Technology.

// No code associated with this task

Identifying a Private Search Engine

In the given options, the search engine that is considered private is DuckDuckGo, which is option B. Unlike other popular search engines, DuckDuckGo claims to protect the user's privacy by not tracking or storing their search history or personal information. Therefore, it is a good option for those who value their online privacy.

The Most Common Method for Maintaining Data Availability

In order to maintain data availability, the most common and widely accepted method is data backup. This involves creating a duplicate copy of important data files and storing them in a safe and secure location, such as an external hard drive or cloud storage service.

Data clustering is a process of dividing a large set of data into smaller groups, each of which have similar characteristics. This can be useful for organizing and analyzing data, but it does not necessarily contribute to data availability.

Data altering refers to making changes to existing data, and is not a method for maintaining data availability. In fact, improper or unauthorized data alterations can lead to data loss or corruption.

Data recovery is a process of retrieving lost or corrupted data from a backup source. While this can help restore data availability in the event of a data loss, it is not the primary method for maintaining data availability.

First Phase of Ethical Hacking

In ethical hacking, the initial phase is known as footprinting. This phase involves gathering information about the target system or network. It helps the ethical hacker to understand the operation and security measures of the target system.

Out of the given options, A) Footprinting is the correct term for the first phase of ethical hacking. ARP Poisoning, DNS Poisoning, and Enumeration are not related to this phase.

NTP Enumeration Suite

In network security, NTP enumeration is a technique of gathering information about a network's hosts by querying the NTP server. To perform NTP enumeration, the NTP suite is used which is specifically designed for NTP servers. DNS, SNMP, HTTP are not suites used for NTP enumeration.


A proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A hacker may use a proxy server to hide their identity and location while performing malicious activities on the network. By using a proxy server, the hacker's IP address can be disguised and make it difficult to trace back to the attacker. Additionally, they can mask their network traffic and make it harder for security systems to detect and block their activity on the network. Thus, a proxy server is commonly used by a hacker to hide their malicious activity on the network.

Identifying the Type of Symmetric Key Algorithm that Uses a Streaming Cipher to Encrypt Information

In symmetric-key cryptography, a streaming cipher is a type of encryption in which data is encrypted one bit or byte at a time. RC4 is a symmetric key algorithm that uses a streaming cipher to encrypt information. Therefore, the correct answer is:

Answer: C) RC4.

Maximum Character Limit in Linux OS File Names

The maximum character limit that Linux OS supports in its file names is 256 characters.

Identification of Independent Malware

Out of the given malware options, the one that does not need any host program and works independently is a worm.

  • Worm
  • Virus
  • Trojan horse
  • Trap door

Answer: A) Worm does not need any host program and is independent.

Reasons why Code Red is a virus

The Code Red virus is classified as a worm that attacks computers operating on Microsoft IIS web servers by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability present on these systems. Once it infects a computer, the worm replicates itself and creates a backdoor that allows an attacker to take over control of the system. The Code Red virus gained notoriety for significantly slowing down internet traffic in 2001 when it infected millions of computers worldwide.

Identifying Unsolicited Commercial Email

Spam is a type of unsolicited commercial email that is sent out in bulk to an untargeted list of recipients for commercial purposes. It is important to identify and filter out spam emails in order to maintain the security of your email account and prevent unwanted emails from cluttering your inbox.

//Example code to identify and filter out spam emails
for each email in inbox:
    if email is from an unknown sender:
        move email to spam folder
    else if email contains certain spam keywords:
        move email to spam folder
    else if email is sent to a large number of recipients:
        move email to spam folder

Class of Computer Threats

There are different classes of computer threats that can harm computer systems and networks. One of these classes includes denial of service (DoS) attacks. A DoS attack is a type of security breach where the attacker aims to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users. This can be done by flooding the targeted system with traffic or sending it information that triggers a crash, making it impossible for users to access the resources they need.

In contrast, phishing and soliciting are not classes of computer threats but rather specific forms of cyberattacks. Phishing is a social engineering tactic used by attackers to trick people into providing sensitive information or downloading malware by impersonating a trusted entity. Soliciting, on the other hand, refers to the act of asking for something from someone, often in an urgent or persistent manner. While soliciting can sometimes be used as a way to carry out cyberattacks, it is not a type of threat in and of itself.

In summary, DoS attacks are a type of computer threat, while phishing and soliciting are not.

   class ComputerThreats:
       DOS_ATTACK = "Denial of Service (DoS) Attack"
   # Example usage
   threat = ComputerThreats.DOS_ATTACK

Default Port Number for Apache and other Web servers

The default port number for Apache and other web servers is



Converting Domain Names to IP Addresses using DNS

In the realm of networking, the process of converting a domain name to its corresponding IP address is called name resolution. The Domain Name System (DNS) is the universally accepted protocol for resolving domain names to IP addresses. When you type a domain name into your browser, your computer sends a request to a DNS server to find the IP address associated with that domain name.

The DNS server then looks up the IP address associated with the domain name in its database and returns it to your computer. Your computer then uses that IP address to connect to the web server and retrieve the website content.

So, the answer to the question is B) A DNS translates a domain name to IP.

Element Not Considered in the CIA Triad

According to the CIA, the triad includes three main elements: authenticity, availability, and integrity. Confidentiality is not considered as part of the triad.

// Code example not required for this task

Understanding CIA Triad

The CIA triad is a widely recognized framework for information security. The three words denote the three critical security objectives of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. It is also sometimes referred to as the AIC triad, AIC standing for Availability, Integrity, and Confidentiality.

In answer to the question, the CIA triad is also known as AIC (Availability, Integrity, Confidentiality).

It is not known as NIC (Non-repudiation, Integrity, Confidentiality) or AIN (Availability, Integrity, Non-repudiation) or ANC (Availability, Non-repudiation, Confidentiality).

Understanding Data Protection

In data security, data protection is the process of safeguarding data from corruption, unauthorized access or deletion. Data protection is also known as information security or data security.

There are four essential components of data protection: confidentiality, authentication, integrity, and availability. Each component is equally crucial in ensuring the security and privacy of sensitive data.

The term which denotes the protection of data from modification by unknown users is known as integrity. It is essential to maintain the integrity of data to ensure that it remains complete, accurate, and consistent throughout its lifecycle.

Data integrity is maintained through security mechanisms such as access control, encryption, and checksums. These mechanisms ensure that authorized users can access and modify only the data they are authorized to access. Additionally, integrity checks can help detect any unauthorized modifications to the data.

Overall, data integrity is a crucial aspect of data protection and security. Maintaining data integrity helps ensure that data is accurate, trusted, and reliable, providing a foundation for sound decision-making and data-driven insights.



Technical Interview Guides

Here are guides for technical interviews, categorized from introductory to advanced levels.

View All

Best MCQ

As part of their written examination, numerous tech companies necessitate candidates to complete multiple-choice questions (MCQs) assessing their technical aptitude.

View MCQ's
Made with love
This website uses cookies to make IQCode work for you. By using this site, you agree to our cookie policy

Welcome Back!

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign in
Recover lost password
Or log in with

Create a Free Account

Sign up to unlock all of IQCode features:
  • Test your skills and track progress
  • Engage in comprehensive interactive courses
  • Commit to daily skill-enhancing challenges
  • Solve practical, real-world issues
  • Share your insights and learnings
Create an account
Sign up
Or sign up with
By signing up, you agree to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. You also agree to receive product-related marketing emails from IQCode, which you can unsubscribe from at any time.