Top Interview Questions to Ask for a Cucumber Position in 2023 - IQCode

Cucumber Interview Questions for Freshers


is a

Behavior-Driven Development (BDD)

testing tool that allows tests to be written in a way that can be understood by anyone, regardless of technical knowledge. With BDD, we can write test scripts from both the developer's and the customer's perspectives, enabling a shared understanding of the software being developed.

Originally created using the Ruby programming language, Cucumber now supports multiple programming languages, such as Java and JavaScript, through various implementations. For .Net, there is an open-source Cucumber port called SpecFlow.

Now let's answer the most frequently asked interview question on Cucumber,

1. What is Cucumber? Explain the need for using Cucumber.

Cucumber allows for efficient collaboration between developers, testers, and non-technical stakeholders. It verifies that the code that is being developed meets the requirements as specified by the business. Writing BDD-style test cases helps to ensure that all scenarios are covered in testing, helping to increase overall test coverage. Additionally, the easy-to-understand nature of Cucumber tests allows for better communication between teams and stakeholders regarding the state of the project. Overall, Cucumber is an effective tool for testing software, ensuring code quality, and promoting communication and collaboration across teams.

Understanding Gherkin Language

Gherkin is a business-readable domain-specific language used for specifying the behavior of software systems in a structured and easy-to-understand way. It is commonly used in behavior-driven development (BDD) and can be understood by both technical and non-technical stakeholders. Gherkin is designed to be simple and streamlined, using a set of keywords to structure the feature files. These keywords include Given, When, Then, And, and But. Gherkin allows teams to create living documentation that enhances collaboration between developers, testers, and business stakeholders. It also helps in speeding up the testing process by writing test cases in a readable and easily understandable way.

What is the Principle of Behavior Driven Development?

Behavior Driven Development (BDD) is a software development process that emphasizes collaboration between developers, QA teams and non-technical stakeholders such as business analysts and product owners.

The principle behind BDD is that all development efforts should focus on delivering business value by ensuring that software behaves consistently with the expectations of its users. In BDD, developers, QA teams and stakeholders work closely together to define, specify and test the behavior of software in a way that is both technically accurate and understandable to non-technical stakeholders.

BDD involves creating automated tests that are designed to reflect the desired behavior of software. These tests are written in a human-readable format that can be easily understood by all members of the development team. By creating tests that reflect the expected behavior of software, BDD helps to ensure that software is delivered to end-users that meets their expectations and fulfills business objectives.

Primary Keywords in Cucumber

In Cucumber, there are three primary keywords - Given, When, and Then. These keywords are used to write test scenarios in a structured format called Gherkin. Given represents the context of the scenario, When represents the action to be performed, and Then represents the expected outcome. These keywords are used to create step definitions, which are then mapped to actual code implementations.

Language Used in Cucumber

Cucumber is primarily used with the programming languages such as Java, Ruby, JavaScript, and more. It supports a variety of programming languages, making it a versatile tool for behavior-driven development (BDD) testing.

What does scenario mean in Cucumber testing?

In Cucumber testing, a scenario is a specific test case that describes a particular behavior of the system or application being tested. Scenarios are written in a human-readable format using the Gherkin language and contain steps that define the actions taken by the user and the expected outcomes. Scenarios are organized into feature files, which group together related scenarios based on a common business requirement or functionality. The purpose of scenarios is to provide a clear understanding of how the system or application should behave under various conditions and to ensure that all stakeholders have a common understanding of the expected behavior.

Explanation of Scenario Outline

A Scenario Outline is a specification technique used in Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) to describe multiple examples of a particular behavior or function in a more concise and readable way. It allows for the creation of more data-driven and reusable feature files by defining placeholders for input values and expected outcomes. Each row in the Scenario Outline represents a different set of values for the placeholders, which are then substituted into the scenario steps when the scenario is executed. This helps to reduce duplication of code and makes it easier to maintain and update test cases.

Explanation of "Feature" in Cucumber

In Cucumber, a feature is a high-level description of a software feature or functionality that needs to be tested. It acts as a container that holds different scenarios that employ a set of steps. This feature file is written in Gherkin language, which is a structured plain text language that is easy to understand for non-technical stakeholders. It serves as a way of communication between stakeholders, developers and testers, ensuring that everyone is aligned with the requirements and expectations for the software being developed. A feature can contain multiple scenarios and the scenarios can be executed in a sequence as well as independently.

Basic Requirements for Running Cucumber Web Test Cases

To run Cucumber web test cases, the following requirements are necessary:

  1. A development environment such as IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse, or Visual Studio Code
  2. Java Development Kit (JDK) 8 or higher installed on the computer
  3. Cucumber for Java plugin or library, which can be added as a dependency in the project
  4. A web driver, such as ChromeDriver, FirefoxDriver, or SafariDriver, depending on the browser used for testing
  5. An understanding of basic Gherkin syntax for writing feature files and step definitions

Advantages of Using Cucumber

Cucumber is a Behavior Driven Development (BDD) tool that has many advantages. Here are a few of them:

1. Easy to Understand: Cucumber uses Gherkin, a simple language that is easily understandable by all stakeholders such as developers, testers, and business analysts.

2. Collaboration: Cucumber promotes collaborative work environment as it allows all stakeholders to contribute to the documentation and testing of a software project.

3. Reusability: Cucumber tests can be reused across multiple platforms, which saves time and effort.

4. Test Coverage: Cucumber ensures maximum test coverage by providing support for multiple languages and platforms.

5. Automation: Cucumber supports automation of tests which eliminates the need for manual testing and reduces human errors.

6. Integration: Cucumber can easily integrate with other testing tools such as Selenium, Appium, and Jenkins.

Using Cucumber can result in better communication, collaboration, and efficient testing of software projects.

Understanding Step Definitions in Cucumber

In Cucumber, step definitions are essentially the glue that connects the Gherkin scenario steps to automated code. These step definitions are used to describe the behaviour of each step in a scenario using executable code in a programming language like Java, Ruby, or JavaScript. They define the actions that need to be taken when a particular step is executed. In other words, step definitions map the plain text Gherkin statements to actual code that can interact with the system being tested. They allow Cucumber to execute the tests automatically, making them an essential part of BDD (Behavior Driven Development) testing.

Understanding Annotations in Cucumber

Annotations in Cucumber are used to provide additional information to the test runner about how to execute the test cases. These annotations can be added to the feature file, step definition file, or to a particular scenario.

Some of the commonly used annotations in Cucumber are:

  • @Given
  • @When
  • @Then
  • @And
  • @But
  • @Before
  • @After
  • @BeforeStep
  • @AfterStep
  • @BeforeOrder
  • @AfterOrder
  • @AfterAll
  • @BeforeAll

Using annotations in Cucumber can improve the readability and maintainability of the tests. They can also help in reporting and debugging of failures.

List of Files Required in Cucumber Framework

For setting up the Cucumber framework, we need to have the following files:

features/       # Directory to store feature files<br>
  step_definitions/   # Directory to store step definition files<br>
  support/           # Directory to store support files<br>
    env.rb           # File to set up the environment<br>



directory is where all the feature files will be stored, containing the acceptance criteria. The


directory should contain the implementation of the feature steps written in the feature files. The


directory should contain the files needed for setting up the environment, including the





file contains all the Ruby code needed to set up the Cucumber environment and load the necessary libraries. It also defines a scenario hook that runs before and after each scenario. Additionally, it can contain other hooks, global variables and configuration options.

Commenting in Cucumber

In Cucumber, comments can be added in two different ways:

1. Single-line comments: These comments start with the "#" symbol. They are used to explain a specific line or section of code.


# This step verifies the user name in the home page
Then(/^I should see my username in the home page$/) do
   # Code to verify the user name

2. Multi-line comments: These comments start with "=begin" and end with "=end". They are used to explain larger sections of code or to disable a block of code temporarily.


This block of code is temporarily disabled. 
It will be removed after the bug fix.

#Code that needs to be temporarily disabled

Importance of Comments

Comments are an essential part of any code. They help in the following ways:

1. Provide clarity: Comments help in understanding the code by explaining what the code does, how it does it, and why it does it.

2. Easy maintenance: Comments make the code easy to maintain by providing information about the code's purpose, making it easier to update and debug.

3. Collaboration: Comments facilitate collaboration between team members working on the same codebase by providing context and understanding of the code.

4. Code documentation: Comments can be used to generate documentation for the code, providing an overview of the code and its function for others to refer to.

Introduction to Hooks in Cucumber

Hooks are a way to perform actions before and after the execution of scenarios in Cucumber. These actions can be used to set up and tear down test data, establish a connection to a database, or perform any other necessary tasks.

Hooks are defined using the `@Before` and `@After` annotations in Cucumber. The `@Before` hook is executed before each scenario, while the `@After` hook is executed after each scenario.

In addition to these basic hooks, Cucumber also provides other types of hooks such as `@BeforeStep` and `@AfterStep`, which are executed before and after each step in a scenario.

Here is an example of a basic before and after hook:

public void setUp() {
    // code to set up test data

public void tearDown() {
    // code to tear down test data

By using hooks, we can keep our step definitions focused on the specific actions required for each scenario, while still setting up the necessary environment to run those steps.

Understanding Cucumber Tags and Their Significance

In Cucumber, tags are used to manage and organize the test scenarios. Tags are keywords starting with '@', which can be added to feature files, scenario outlines, and scenarios to categorize them. These tags can be used to run specific scenarios or exclude others from running during the test execution.

Tags can also help in filtering test cases, especially when you have a large suite of tests. For instance, you can add tags for smoke tests, regression tests, or tests that are specific to a particular feature. Later, you can run tests based on the associated tag at any time, using the command line or a Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) tool.

When used appropriately, tags can save time and effort by controlling which tests should be run when and the order in which they are run. Thus, understanding the significance of tags is essential in creating an effective and efficient automated test suite with Cucumber.

Understanding Cucumber Dry Run

Cucumber Dry Run is a way to check the Cucumber feature files without executing the actual tests. It helps in identifying the errors and issues in the code before running the actual tests. Dry Run executes the test scenario steps without executing the step definitions. If there are any undefined steps, then the Dry Run will report them as errors. This way, developers can fix the errors and prepare the test cases for actual execution later.

Explanation of Profiles in Cucumber

Profiles in Cucumber refer to a feature that allows you to run specific scenarios or sets of scenarios under different contexts. Each profile can have specific properties, for example, a database URL or API key. You can set up different profiles to run different tests based on the environment, such as test, staging, or production.

To specify a profile, you need to add a YAML file that defines the set of properties associated with that profile. These properties can then be accessed in your Cucumber tests by using the `ENV` variable.

Using profiles in Cucumber can help reduce redundancy and make your code more maintainable, as you can create separate profiles for different environments without having to copy and paste code. This makes it easier to make changes to your tests and ensures that they run consistently across different environments.

Programming Languages Utilized by Cucumber

Cucumber supports several programming languages, including:

Java, JavaScript, Ruby, Groovy, .NET, and many more.

It also offers support for BDD frameworks, such as JBehave and SpecFlow.

Cucumber Interview Questions for Experienced

In Behavioral Driven Development (BDD), tests are written in a language that is easily understood by everyone involved in the project, including developers, testers, and business stakeholders. The tests are based on the desired behavior of the system and are written in a given-when-then format, where each scenario consists of a "given" step, which sets up the context, a "when" step, which represents the action being performed, and a "then" step, which describes the expected outcome.

Feature: Login Functionality

Scenario: Successful Login
Given the user navigates to the login page
When the user enters valid login credentials
And clicks the submit button
Then the user should be redirected to the home page
And a welcome message should be displayed

Scenario: Unsuccessful Login
Given the user navigates to the login page
When the user enters invalid login credentials
And clicks the submit button
Then an error message should be displayed
And the user should remain on the login page

Understanding Test Harness in Cucumber

In the context of Cucumber, a test harness refers to the framework that is used to execute Cucumber tests. It provides an environment where Cucumber tests can be conducted and ensures that they run smoothly by providing all the necessary setup, configuration, and resources.

The test harness in Cucumber is responsible for executing the feature files, interpreting the Gherkin syntax, and running the steps defined in the step definitions file. It also captures and reports any issues or errors that occur during the test execution.

In simpler terms, the Cucumber test harness acts as a mediator between the Cucumber tests and the testing environment. It ensures that Cucumber tests are executed correctly and provides a way to troubleshoot and debug any problems that arise during testing.


There is no code to be provided for this explanation as it is a concept description.

Differences between RSpec and Cucumber

RSpec is a behavior-driven development (BDD) testing framework primarily used for unit testing Ruby code. It focuses on writing tests for individual units of code and verifying that they behave as expected.

Cucumber, on the other hand, is a BDD testing framework used to write high-level tests that describe the expected behavior of an application from an end-user's perspective. It emphasizes collaboration between developers, testers, and business stakeholders to define and test the application's behavior according to a set of executable specifications.

In summary, RSpec is focused on testing individual units of code, while Cucumber focuses on testing the behavior of an application as a whole. Both frameworks are useful in different contexts and can be used together for comprehensive testing.

Differences between Selenium and Cucumber

Selenium and Cucumber are two popular tools used in software testing. However, they differ in several aspects.

// Code example highlighting the differences between Selenium and Cucumber

// Selenium is a testing framework that allows automation of web browsers.
// Cucumber, on the other hand, is a testing tool that supports Behavior Driven Development.

// Selenium requires programming skills to write test scripts and execute them.
// Cucumber, however, enables a more user-friendly approach, using a plain-text language (Gherkin) to specify test scenarios in a natural language format.

// Selenium tests can be written in various programming languages such as Java, C#, Python, and JavaScript.
// Cucumber provides support for multiple programming languages but is mainly used with Ruby for writing test scripts.

// Selenium is more suitable for testing the functionality of web applications.
// Cucumber focuses more on the behavior of the software, placing more emphasis on collaboration and communication between developers, testers, and business stakeholders.

// Selenium tests are run using TestNG or JUnit frameworks.
// Cucumber tests can be executed using various test runners such as Maven, Ant, or the Cucumber command line interface.

Benefits of Using Cucumber with Selenium

There are several reasons why we should use Cucumber with Selenium:

  1. BDD approach: Cucumber uses a behavior-driven development (BDD) approach, which helps in defining application behavior in simple language that can be understood by all stakeholders such as developers, testers, and business analysts.
  2. Readability: Cucumber scenarios are written in Gherkin language, which is easy to read and understand, even for non-technical stakeholders.
  3. Collaboration: Cucumber promotes collaboration among team members, as everyone can contribute to the creation and maintenance of test scenarios.
  4. Reusability: Cucumber tests can be reused for different applications, making the testing process more efficient.
  5. Integration: Cucumber integrates well with other testing tools and frameworks such as Selenium, making it a great choice for automated testing.
// sample code using Cucumber with Selenium

Maximum Number of Scenarios in a Feature File

In a feature file, there is no specific maximum number of scenarios. However, it is recommended to keep the number of scenarios within a feature file to a reasonable limit to maintain clarity and organization in the testing process. Having too many scenarios in a single feature file can make it difficult to manage and may lead to confusion and errors.

Test Driven Development (TDD) - Definition

Test Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process in which the developer writes automated tests before writing the actual code to implement the feature. The code is then written to pass those tests. This approach helps to ensure that the code meets the requirements and works correctly in all scenarios. It also helps to catch bugs early in the development process, making it easier and less expensive to fix them.

Differences between TDD and BDD

Test-Driven Development (TDD) and Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) are two popular software development methodologies that ensure the quality of the code. While both aim to provide a better understanding of the requirements of the software, there are some significant differences between them:

- Focuses on writing unit tests to test each piece of code before it's implemented<br>
- Tests are written in code and are typically written by developers<br>
- TDD focuses on ensuring that each unit of code functions correctly individually<br>
- Tests are written to verify that the code satisfies the requirements<br>
- Code is adapted to ensure that all tests pass<br>

- Focuses on defining the behavior of the system from the perspective of the stakeholders<br>
- Tests are written in a natural language format that can be easily understood by stakeholders<br>
- BDD focuses on ensuring that the system satisfies the business requirements<br>
- Tests are written to verify that the code behaves the way stakeholders expect it to<br>
- Code is adapted to ensure that all tests pass, while making sure that the system satisfies the business requirements<br>

In conclusion, while both TDD and BDD are valuable methodologies, the choice between them depends on the specific needs of the project and the preferences of the stakeholders involved.

Role of Options tag in Cucumber Framework

In Cucumber Framework, the options tag is used to configure the test run settings such as format, tags, and plugin. It allows us to provide various options for execution such as specifying the formats of the result output, installing plugins, specifying environment variables, and many more. The options tag is a powerful feature that enables us to customize execution settings according to our requirements. By utilizing options tag, we can run Cucumber tests more efficiently and effectively.

Execution Start in Cucumber

In Cucumber, execution starts with the "Feature" file which contains scenarios written in Gherkin language. These scenarios are then implemented in step definition files written in Java or any other language supported by Cucumber. The step definition files contain the actual code that performs the actions described in the scenarios. When the feature file is executed, Cucumber reads each step in the scenario and tries to match it with a step definition in the step definition file. If a match is found, the corresponding code is executed. If not, an error is thrown.

Cucumber Grouping

In Cucumber, grouping refers to the technique of organizing and categorizing test scenarios and features based on common attributes such as functionality, priority, or team ownership. By grouping tests, you can easily manage large test suites, run specific subsets of tests based on specific criteria, and generate reports that provide insight into the health of your application.

Grouping can be accomplished using Cucumber tags, which are annotations that you can add to features or scenarios. For example, you might tag all scenarios that test login functionality with "@login", or tag all high-priority tests with "@high_priority". Then, when you run your test suite, you can use the tags to select which tests to run.

Here's an example of how to use the tag "@login" to group scenarios:

Feature: Login Functionality

  Scenario: User can log in with valid credentials
    Given the user navigates to the login page
    When they enter valid credentials
    Then they should be logged in

  Scenario: User cannot log in with invalid credentials
    Given the user navigates to the login page
    When they enter invalid credentials
    Then they should see an error message

To run only the tests with the "@login" tag, you can use the following command:

cucumber --tags @login

Overall, grouping in Cucumber is a powerful technique for managing and organizing your test suite, and can help improve your overall testing strategy.

How to run Cucumber tests in parallel?

To run Cucumber tests in parallel, you can use the `cucumber-jvm-parallel-plugin`. Follow the steps below:

1. Add the `cucumber-jvm-parallel-plugin` dependency to your `pom.xml` file:


2. Add the plugin to your `pom.xml` file:

                <!-- Mandatory -->
                <!-- Optional -->

3. Set the parallel mode to `FEATURE` in the plugin configuration (`pom.xml`)

4. Run your tests using a test runner that supports parallel testing, such as TestNG or JUnit.

Now your Cucumber tests will run in parallel, which can significantly reduce the time it takes to run your entire test suite.

Prerequisites to Consider when Building a Selenium Cucumber Automation Application

When building a Selenium Cucumber automation application, there are several prerequisites that need to be considered:

1. Knowledge of programming languages such as Java, Python, or Ruby 2. Proficiency in using Selenium WebDriver API for browser automation 3. Familiarity with Cucumber BDD framework for test development and execution 4. Understanding of software testing principles and practices 5. Understanding of web technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript 6. Familiarity with software development tools such as Git, Maven, and Jenkins

By having a good grasp of these prerequisites, developers can successfully design and implement a robust Selenium Cucumber automation project.

Comparison of JBehave and Cucumber Testing Frameworks

Both JBehave and Cucumber are testing frameworks used for implementing Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) in Java. However, there are some differences between them.

  • Relies on annotations to define steps and hooks
  • Uses
    @Given @When @Then

    to define steps

  • Uses Java regex for mapping steps to methods
  • Supports data-driven testing using examples tables
  • Allows for running tests in parallel with JUnit or TestNG
  • Uses plain text

    files with Gherkin syntax to define steps and scenarios

  • Uses
    Given When Then

    keywords to define steps

  • Uses regular expressions to map steps to methods
  • Supports data tables and scenario outlines for data-driven testing
  • Allows for running tests in parallel with TestNG or JUnit

In summary, both JBehave and Cucumber are great tools for BDD testing in Java. The choice depends on the team's preference for annotations versus plain text file formats and mapping steps to methods using regex versus plain language syntax.

Running a Selected Test from a Group of Tests in Cucumber

To run a specific test from a group of tests in Cucumber, you can use the following command in the terminal:

cucumber features/my_feature.feature:line_number

Replace `my_feature.feature` with the name of your feature file and `line_number` with the line number of the specific scenario you want to run.

For example, if you want to run only the scenario with line number 8 from `my_feature.feature`, you can use the following command:

cucumber features/my_feature.feature:8

This command will run only the scenario on line 8 of `my_feature.feature`.

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