Top 30+ Automation Testing Interview Questions and Answers for 2023 - IQCode

Importance of Software Testing in Software Development

As humans, we're all prone to making mistakes. This is true even in software development! Regardless of how careful you are with your code, bugs and errors can always slip through. However, this is not an acceptable excuse when it comes to delivering software to clients. A reliable process must exist to ensure that the software is of high quality before release. Software testing aims to find these bugs and errors and provide stakeholders with enough confidence to ship the software.

Software testing can be classified into two broad categories: manual testing and automated testing. Manual testing involves a human tester who manually tests the software by performing actions intended to be carried out by actual users. On the other hand, automated testing uses software tools to conduct tests, execute code in a pre-configured manner, and cross-check the expected and actual results.

Both manual and automated testing have their advantages and disadvantages, and a good software development organization will use both techniques to deliver high-quality software.

This article focuses on important questions that can be asked of a software tester, specifically related to automated testing. We have separated the questions into beginner and advanced categories. A free mock interview is available for individuals who desire instant feedback and recommendations.


// This program demonstrates the importance of software testing in software development

// Software testing aims to find bugs and errors
// in software to provide stakeholders with enough confidence to release the software

// Software testing can be manual or automated
// Manual testing involves a human tester who performs actions intended to be carried out by the actual users
// Automated testing uses software tools to conduct tests and execute code in a pre-configured manner

// Both manual and automated testing have their advantages and disadvantages, and
// reliable software organizations use both techniques to deliver high-quality software.

// This article focuses on questions for software testers related to automated testing
// and classifies them into beginner and advanced categories.

// Sample code:

int main() {
    std::cout << "Hello World! This program demonstrates the importance of software testing in software development." << std::endl;
    return 0;

Types of Automation Testing

In the field of software testing, there are several types of automation testing, including but not limited to:

  • Unit Testing
  • Functional Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • Regression Testing
  • Load Testing
  • Performance Testing
  • API Testing

Each of these types of automation testing serves a specific purpose and helps to ensure that software applications are working as intended before they are released to users. By automating testing processes, software development teams can save time, increase efficiency, and improve the overall quality of their products.

Differences between Manual Testing and Automated Testing

Manual testing is the process of manually executing test cases without using any automation tools. Testers perform manual testing by following a set of predefined test cases or using exploratory testing techniques to identify defects in the software under test.

On the other hand, automated testing involves using automation tools to execute test cases. It involves writing scripts and test cases that can be run automatically by software tools. Automated testing is beneficial in that it can save time and effort and reduce the chances of error by eliminating human intervention.

Manual testing is suitable for small-scale projects, whereas automated testing is useful for large-scale projects where a large number of test cases need to be executed repeatedly. In summary, manual testing is a human-based testing approach, whereas automated testing uses software tools to execute test cases.

//Example of manual testing
public class CalculatorTest {
    public void testAddition() {
        Calculator calculator = new Calculator();
        int result = calculator.add(2,3);
        if(result == 5) {
            System.out.println("Manual test passed");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Manual test failed");

//Example of automated testing
public class CalculatorTest {
    public void testAddition() {
        Calculator calculator = new Calculator();
        int result = calculator.add(2,3);
        Assert.assertEquals(result, 5);

When is a good time to automate a test?

Automating a test is helpful when the test case is stable and has a high probability of being executed multiple times. Therefore, it is best to automate a test after the test case is thoroughly tested manually, and any defects have been fixed.

It is also essential to consider the project's timeline and resources while deciding to automate a test. Automating a test takes time and effort, and it may not always be practical or cost-effective.

In conclusion, automate a test only after ensuring its stability and need for frequent execution, and carefully evaluate the project constraints before deciding to automate tests.

Instances when Automated Testing should be avoided

Automated testing should be avoided in certain situations, including:

- When the cost of creating and maintaining automated tests is higher than the cost of manual testing.
- When testing a new feature that is still under development and is likely to change in the future.
- When testing a new product that needs to be validated by human testers for usability and user experience.
- When testing in an environment where the cost of setting up and maintaining test automation is too high, such as legacy systems or complex configurations.

Manual testing should also be used in conjunction with automated testing to ensure thorough testing and to catch issues that automated tests might not detect.

Choosing a Tool/Framework for Automated Testing

When selecting a tool/framework for automated testing, there are several things to consider. First, determine the needs and goals of the testing process. Next, research available tools/frameworks that meet those needs and compare their features, advantages, and limitations. Consider the level of technical expertise required to use each tool and whether there is support available if needed.

It's also important to consider compatibility with the software being tested and the programming languages and environments used in the development process. Evaluate the cost of the tool/framework and whether it fits within the budget.

In addition, the size of the team and the scale of the project should be taken into account. Some tools/frameworks are better suited for small teams and projects, while others are more suitable for large-scale enterprise-level testing.

Finally, it's a good idea to test and evaluate the selected tool/framework before making a final decision. This will help to ensure that it meets all requirements and is the best fit for the project.

Parts of a Test Automation Framework

In test automation frameworks, there are typically several components that work together to provide a comprehensive testing solution. Some of these components may include:

  • Test libraries: A collection of reusable functions, methods, or classes that can be used to build out test cases.
  • Test cases: A set of steps executed in a sequence that validate a particular aspect of an application's functionality.
  • Test data: Input data and expected output data used in test cases.
  • Test runner: A tool that executes the test cases and generates reports on test results.
  • Configuration files: Files with configuration data such as browser type and version, platform, and other test environment parameters.
  • Logging and reporting: Collecting and presenting the results of test cases in a meaningful way to stakeholders and team members.

By combining these components together, a well-designed test automation framework can provide a structured and scalable approach to testing software applications.

Should You Automate All Testing?

There is no definitive answer to whether you should automate all testing or not. It depends on a variety of factors, such as the size and complexity of the project, the budget and time constraints, the required level of testing, and the skills and expertise of your team members.

While automation can save time and effort in the long run, it also requires significant upfront investment in tools, infrastructure, and training. Moreover, some types of testing, such as exploratory testing and usability testing, may be better suited for manual testing.

Therefore, you should assess your testing needs and goals, evaluate the costs and benefits of automation, and decide which tests to automate and which to perform manually. It is also recommended to start with small, simple tests and gradually expand your automation coverage as you gain experience and confidence.

//example code if applicable

Understanding Test Environments

A test environment is a software and hardware setup that allows developers and testers to simulate real-world conditions where applications operate. This lets them see how an application would perform in different scenarios without affecting the production environment. It is a vital component of software development as it helps ensure software quality and reduces the risk of potential issues when the application is deployed. Test environments can be created using virtual machines, containers, or dedicated hardware, depending on the project needs and available resources.


Browser automation is the process of controlling a web browser using a program. It allows a developer to interact with a website as if they were interacting with it manually. Automated browser scripts can be used for various purposes, such as testing website functionality, scraping information from websites, and automating repetitive tasks on websites.

Cross-Browser Testing: Explained

Cross-browser testing is the process of testing a website or web application across different web browsers and browser versions. This is done to ensure that the website or application behaves consistently and correctly on all browsers and platforms.

The goal of cross-browser testing is to identify and fix any compatibility issues that may arise due to differences in browser technologies and rendering engines. This helps to improve the user experience and prevent any potential loss of business due to website or application malfunction.

Cross-browser testing is an essential part of the web development process and should be performed regularly to ensure that your website or application remains functional and accessible to a wide range of users.

// Sample code to perform Cross-Browser testing using Selenium WebDriver
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver;

public class CrossBrowserTesting {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
		// Defining the WebDriver object
		WebDriver driver;

		// Setting up the ChromeDriver path
		System.setProperty("", "path/to/chromedriver.exe");

		// Creating a ChromeDriver instance
		driver = new ChromeDriver();

		// Launching the website

		// Maximizing the browser window

		// Closing the browser instance

Reasons for Cross-Browser Testing

Cross-browser testing is essential for ensuring that a website or web application has consistent functionality and appearance across all major browsers and their different versions. Here are some reasons why:

  • Different browsers interpret HTML, CSS, and JavaScript in different ways, which can lead to inconsistencies in how a website or web application is displayed or operates.
  • Browsers are frequently updated, introducing changes and new features that can affect how a website or web application behaves.
  • Users access websites and web applications through a variety of different browsers and devices, so ensuring compatibility across all of them can improve user satisfaction and overall engagement.
  • Cross-browser testing can help identify and fix errors that may not be apparent in one particular browser or version, potentially improving the overall quality and usability of a website or web application.
// Sample code for performing cross-browser testing using Selenium WebDriver:

Automated Regression Testing: Definition and Explanation

Automated Regression Testing is a software testing process that involves the execution of a previously performed test case on a new build or version of the software. Automated regression testing ensures that new changes to the software do not have any unintended impact on existing functionality.

This process involves the use of specialized software tools to automate the testing process and compare the results of the new build with the previous build. The goal of automated regression testing is to identify any errors or defects introduced in the software due to changes made during the software development cycle.

Overall, automated regression testing helps software development teams to save time, reduce costs, and improve the quality of their software by identifying any issues early on in the development cycle.

Suggested Best Practices for Test Automation

Automated testing is an important aspect of software development. Implementing the following best practices can help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of your automated testing process:

1. Prioritize tests based on their business impact and frequency of use. 
2. Use descriptive and meaningful names for test cases to enhance clarity and maintainability. 
3. Use version control to manage tests and prevent conflicts in the code. 
4. Maintain a test environment that is similar to the production environment. 
5. Ensure that tests are independent, isolated, and do not rely on other tests or external factors. 
6. Use assertions to verify expected results and catch defects early in the development cycle. 
7. Avoid hard-coding values and use variables and data-driven testing instead. 
8. Implement error-handling and reporting mechanisms to quickly identify and fix issues. 
9. Regularly review, update, and refactor automated tests to keep them relevant and efficient. 
10. Integrate automated testing into the continuous integration and delivery pipeline to detect issues early and deliver high-quality software faster.

By following these best practices, you can achieve more reliable, accurate, and efficient test automation that supports the overall success of your software development efforts.

Understanding the Test Automation Pyramid

The test automation pyramid is a concept that helps in designing an efficient and effective test automation strategy. The pyramid suggests that the automation tests must be divided into three levels – unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end tests, each serving a specific purpose. The foundation layer consists of the unit tests, which are the most granular and the fastest to execute. The next layer is the integration layer, followed by the top layer – end-to-end tests.

It is essential to maintain a balance between the three levels for optimum test coverage and faster execution times. Unit tests should have the highest coverage, and end-to-end tests should be minimal. The pyramid helps teams avoid the common pitfall of creating too many end-to-end tests, which are typically slower to execute and prone to failure due to their high complexity.

// Example code for a unit test
public void testAddition() {
assertEquals(4, Calculator.add(2, 2));
// Example code for an integration test
public void testBankDeposit() {
Bank.createAccount(1234567890, "John Doe");
Bank.deposit(1234567890, 1000);
assertEquals(1000, Bank.getBalance(1234567890));
// Example code for an end-to-end test
public void testPlaceOrder() {
Login.enterCredentials("user123", "pass123");
assertEquals("Order placed successfully", ConfirmationPage.getConfirmationMessage());

Average Automation Testing Interview Questions for Experienced

16. Is Manual Testing becoming obsolete due to the rise of Automated Testing?

With the growing popularity and advancements in Automated Testing, many people are wondering whether Manual Testing is becoming obsolete. However, the answer is no. Manual Testing is still necessary, especially in scenarios where the application or system cannot be effectively automated. Automated Testing complements Manual Testing, but it does not replace it altogether. Ultimately, the determination of which type of testing to use depends on the specific requirements and constraints of the project.

// Sample code can be added here for illustration purposes, if needed

Who is Responsible for Test Automation: Developers or QA?

When it comes to test automation, both developers and QA have important roles to play. Developers are responsible for writing and maintaining the code, while QA is responsible for ensuring that the software meets the quality standards.

Ideally, developers and QA should work together to create a comprehensive test automation strategy. Developers can provide input on what tests are needed and how they can be automated, while QA can ensure that the tests are thorough and cover all necessary scenarios.

Ultimately, the responsibility for test automation should be shared between developers and QA, with each team member contributing their expertise to ensure that the software is thoroughly tested before release.

What is Selenium? What are its Pros and Cons?

Selenium is an open-source framework used for automating web browsers. It provides a suite of testing functions and APIs that allow developers to automate web applications. Selenium supports multiple programming languages and can be used on various platforms like Windows, Linux, and Mac.

Pros of Selenium:

  • It is an open-source framework that is available for free to use.
  • It supports multiple programming languages like Java, Python, Ruby, and more.
  • Selenium supports parallel test execution, which saves time and increases efficiency.
  • It can be integrated with other tools and frameworks like TestNG, JUnit, and more.
  • Selenium can be used on different browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and more.

Cons of Selenium:

  • It requires a good understanding of programming languages, which could be a challenge for testers without coding experience.
  • Tests created using Selenium could be slow and require maintenance, especially when changes are made to the website.
  • It doesn't support desktop applications or mobile testing, making it limited in scope.
Overall, Selenium is a powerful tool for automating web applications, but it requires a good understanding of programming languages and may not be suitable for all types of testing.

Components of Selenium

Selenium consists of the following components:

  1. Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE): An easy-to-use tool for creating automated tests without coding. It is available as a Firefox extension and records user actions as commands. However, it has limited functionality and is not recommended for complex testing scenarios.
  2. Selenium Remote Control (RC): A tool that allows users to write automated web application UI tests in any programming language that supports HTTP. It supports multiple programming languages like Java, C#, PHP, Python, Ruby, etc.
  3. Selenium WebDriver: A library of programming functions that enable users to automate browser actions in various programming languages like Java, C#, PHP, Python, Ruby, etc. It provides a more stable and reliable way of automating browser actions compared to RC.
  4. Selenium Grid: A tool that allows simultaneous execution of browser automation tests on multiple machines and across different browsers and operating systems.

By using these tools effectively, users can write efficient and reliable automated tests for web applications.


UI Testing Explained

UI testing refers to the process of testing the graphical user interface of a software or application. The goal of UI testing is to ensure that the user interface is functioning correctly and as expected in terms of visual appearance, usability, and responsiveness. This can involve testing various elements such as buttons, forms, menus, and other interactive components. UI testing is typically performed manually or using automated testing tools. Proper UI testing is crucial in ensuring that a software or application provides a good user experience.

What is Protractor?

Protractor is an end-to-end testing framework for AngularJS applications. It is an open source tool that was developed by the AngularJS team at Google. Protractor uses WebDriver to automate the web applications and supports both AngularJS and non-AngularJS applications. It provides a powerful API that allows testers to interact with the application's UI elements and control the browser behavior. Protractor is widely used for testing AngularJS applications as it provides specific angular components that make testing more comfortable and stable.

Understanding Test Automation Platforms

A test automation platform, also known as an automation testing framework, is a set of tools and libraries that provide an interface for creating, managing, and executing automated tests. It simplifies the process of automating repetitive test cases and enables testers to focus on improving the test coverage and quality. Test automation platforms can be customized and integrated with other development tools to support various testing types, including functional, integration, and performance testing. Overall, a test automation platform helps organizations streamline their testing processes and achieve faster, more reliable releases.

What Are Some Alternatives to Selenium?

Selenium is a popular automated testing framework, but there are also several alternatives available in the market. Here are some of the widely used alternatives to Selenium:

  • 1. TestComplete
  • 2. Katalon Studio
  • 3. Appium
  • 4. Watir
  • 5. TestCafe
  • 6. Cypress

Each of these alternatives has its own unique strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of an automated testing tool depends on the requirements of the project.

Overview of Robot Framework Architecture

Robot Framework is an open-source test automation framework that uses a keyword-driven approach to write tests. It allows us to create high-level test cases for complicated software systems with ease. The architecture of Robot Framework consists of three major components:

  1. Test Libraries: These are the modules that contain the implementation of various test keywords, which can be used in the test cases.

  2. Test Data: This component includes the test case data, environment setup, and configuration files that are required to execute the tests.

  3. Robot Framework Core: This is the central component that provides a mechanism to run the test cases using various test libraries and test data.

The Robot Framework's architecture allows us to easily extend it by adding additional libraries for specific functionalities, and it provides comprehensive reporting capabilities.

Sample Code:

A sample code snippet demonstrating the use of Robot Framework:

*** Settings ***
Documentation  My First Test Suite
Library  SeleniumLibrary

*** Test Cases ***
Open Browser To Google
    Open Browser  chrome
    Maximize Browser Window
    Input Text  name=q  Test Automation
    Press Keys  name=q  \ue007
    Title Should Be  Test Automation - Google Search
    Close Browser

Test Library APIs Provided by the Robot Framework

In Robot Framework, there are several test library APIs available to help automate testing. These include:

  • SeleniumLibrary
  • RequestsLibrary
  • DatabaseLibrary
  • ExcelLibrary
  • SSHLibrary
  • Dialogs

These libraries provide built-in functions that can be executed within test cases, allowing for easy and efficient testing of various aspects of an application. By utilizing these test libraries, developers can write clean and optimized code for automated testing.

Automating Basic Login in a Web Application

To automate basic login in a web application, we can use Selenium WebDriver, which is a popular tool for browser automation.

First, we need to write a test script in a programming language (such as Python, Java, or C#) that will do the following steps:

1. Launch the web browser and navigate to the login page of the web application. 2. Find the username and password input fields and enter the login credentials. 3. Click on the login button. 4. Wait for the login to complete and verify that the user is logged in successfully.

Here's an example Python code for automating basic login in a web application using Selenium WebDriver:

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys

# Launch the browser and navigate to the login page
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

# Find the username and password input fields and enter the login credentials 
username = driver.find_element_by_name("username")
password = driver.find_element_by_name("password")

# Click on the login button
login_button = driver.find_element_by_xpath("//input[@type='submit']")

# Wait for the login to complete and verify it
assert "Dashboard" in driver.title

# Close the browser

Note: It's important to use proper error handling and wait mechanisms to make the login automation script more robust and reliable.

Risks Associated with Automated Testing

Automated testing has its own set of risks despite being an efficient way to test software. These risks include:

  • Flaky tests that produce inconsistent results
  • Incomplete test coverage
  • False sense of security resulting in inadequate manual testing
  • Dependency on test scripts, leading to difficulty in updating them
  • Over-reliance on automation, leading to neglect of human intuition
  • High initial costs for setup and maintenance

It is important for software development teams to be aware of these risks and take steps to mitigate them in order to ensure successful automated testing outcomes.

What are the different phases in an automation testing life cycle?

In an automation testing life cycle, the following phases are typically involved:

  1. Test Planning: This is the initial phase where the testing strategy and plan are defined.
  2. Test Development: In this phase, the test cases are developed based on the requirements and design documents.
  3. Test Execution: This is where the automated test cases are executed using suitable automation tools.
  4. Test Reporting: In this phase, the reports are generated based on the test results for analysis.
  5. Test Maintenance: This is an ongoing phase where the test cases are updated and maintained to ensure they remain relevant and up-to-date.

During each phase, it is essential to ensure that the relevant stakeholders are involved, and the quality of the testing process is maintained. Proper planning, documentation, and execution are critical to any successful automation testing life cycle.

Automating CAPTCHA Testing

CAPTCHA, which stands for Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart, is a common security measure used to prevent automated bots from performing actions on websites. Automating the testing of CAPTCHA requires specialized tools and techniques.

One approach is to use OCR (optical character recognition) technology to read and interpret the characters within the image. This requires training the OCR tool with a large dataset of CAPTCHA images and their corresponding solutions. However, this method can be prone to errors and is not always reliable.

Another approach is to use human-powered CAPTCHA solving services. These services employ real people who manually solve each CAPTCHA and provide the solution to the automated testing system. However, this method can be expensive and may not be feasible for all testing scenarios.

Ultimately, the best approach to automating CAPTCHA testing depends on the specific requirements and constraints of the testing environment. It may be necessary to combine multiple approaches or to develop a custom solution tailored to the unique needs of the application being tested.

Suggested Development Practices for Writing Automated Tests

When writing automated tests, it is essential to follow certain development practices to ensure that the tests are effective and efficient. Some of these practices include:

1. Plan ahead: Before writing any code, take time to plan what needs to be tested and how to test it. This helps to avoid wasting time writing unnecessary tests or missing vital test cases.

2. Write clear and concise tests: Write tests that are easy to read and understand. Use clear names for test methods and avoid lengthy test cases.

3. Avoid hard-coding values: Use variables and constants instead of hard-coding values in your tests. This makes it easier to maintain the tests and change values when necessary.

4. Keep tests independent: Each test should be independent and not rely on the results of other tests. This helps to identify issues more quickly and isolate the root cause of any problems.

5. Use good coding practices: Follow good coding practices such as using comments to explain code and using meaningful variable and method names.

6. Automate tests continuously: Set up a continuous integration system to automate tests continuously. This helps to detect errors early.

By following these practices, you can create automated tests that are effective, efficient, and easy to maintain.

Criteria for Selecting an Automation Tool

When choosing an automation tool, I will consider the following features:

- Ease of use
- Compatibility with the technology stack
- Support for various platforms (Windows, Mac, Linux, Mobile)
- Flexibility in scripting languages
- Integration with other tools in the development process
- Ability to handle various testing types (functional, regression, load, etc.)
- Robust reporting capabilities
- Cost and licensing fees

By evaluating these features, I can choose an automation tool that best fits the project requirements, budget, and team's skills.


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