2023's Top ASP.NET Interview Questions- IQCode.

Overview of ASP.NET and ASP.NET Core

ASP.NET is a popular web application framework that was developed by Microsoft and released as part of the .NET framework. This platform makes it easy to build dynamic web applications. Other examples of web application frameworks include Ruby on Rails (Ruby), Django (Python), and Express (JavaScript).

ASP.NET Core, on the other hand, is a new, high-performance, and open-source web application framework released by Microsoft in 2016. It allows developers to create modern, cloud-enabled applications that are cross-platform and not tied to a specific operating system.

Here are some key features of ASP.NET Core: - Cross-platform: ASP.NET Core can be developed and run on Linux and Mac systems as well as Windows. - High performance: It's designed from scratch with performance in mind, and is now considered one of the fastest web application frameworks. - Open-source: The platform is open-source and actively contributed to by thousands of developers.

Both ASP.NET and ASP.NET Core are built on C#, an object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. While ASP.NET Core inherits many concepts and features from its predecessor, it's fundamentally a new framework.

Microsoft will continue to support the legacy ASP.NET framework, but is not actively developing it. Going forward, the company recommends that developers build all new web applications with ASP.NET Core.

This article covers both ASP.NET and ASP.NET Core interview questions. Assuming you have programmed in C# and have a basic understanding of common object-oriented concepts and front-end technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, we have divided the interview questions into basic and advanced sections.

The basic interview questions cover the fundamentals of ASP.NET project structure, while the advanced interview questions focus on more complex topics such as dependency injection, routing, and model binding.

A web application framework is a software tool that includes pre-written code for web development, which can help developers create web applications more efficiently. Some of the advantages of using a web application framework include faster development time, improved scalability, increased security, and easier maintenance. These frameworks also typically provide a standardized structure and set of tools for building web applications, reducing the need to create everything from scratch. Overall, a web application framework can help developers create better web applications in less time.

Benefits of ASP.NET Core over Classic ASP.NET

ASP.NET Core is a modern web development framework that offers several advantages over its predecessor, Classic ASP.NET. Some of the benefits of using ASP.NET Core are:

  1. Cross-platform support: ASP.NET Core runs on Windows, Linux, and macOS, providing developers with the flexibility to choose their preferred operating system for development and deployment.
  2. Lightweight and modular architecture: ASP.NET Core uses a modular design that allows developers to pick and choose the frameworks and libraries they need for their specific application requirements. This results in a lightweight and more efficient application.
  3. Improved performance: ASP.NET Core is built with performance in mind, and it is faster and more scalable than Classic ASP.NET. It also has a smaller memory footprint, which allows for better scalability and reduces hardware costs.
  4. Built-in dependency injection: ASP.NET Core has native support for dependency injection, making it easier to manage and test large applications.
  5. Open-source and community-driven: ASP.NET Core is open-source and has a large community of developers contributing to its development, which means that it is continuously improving and evolving with the latest trends and technologies.

In addition to these benefits, ASP.NET Core also offers improved security features, better support for modern web standards, and a more user-friendly development experience.

When to Choose Classic ASP.NET Over ASP.NET Core

Classic ASP.NET and ASP.NET Core are both popular frameworks used for building web applications. However, there are certain scenarios where you might choose one over the other.

Classic ASP.NET may be a better choice in the following cases:

1. Legacy Applications: If you have an existing application built on Classic ASP.NET, it might not be practical to migrate to ASP.NET Core immediately. In such cases, it might be better to continue using Classic ASP.NET.

2. Larger Applications: If you're building a large, complex application that requires the full .NET framework, including features like Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) or Windows Workflow Foundation (WF), Classic ASP.NET might be a better choice.

3. Stability: Classic ASP.NET has been around for a long time and is a mature, stable framework. If you need to build a highly stable and reliable application, Classic ASP.NET might be a better choice.

4. Compatibility: Some third-party libraries or components might not be compatible with ASP.NET Core. In such cases, you might want to choose Classic ASP.NET.

Overall, the choice between Classic ASP.NET and ASP.NET Core depends on your specific requirements and use case. It's important to consider both options carefully before making a decision.

Explanation of how the HTTP Protocol works

The HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) protocol is the foundation of communication between the World Wide Web that enables web browsers and servers to communicate with each other. Here's how it works:

  1. The client (usually a web browser) sends a request message to the server, asking for a specific resource, such as a webpage.
  2. The server processes the request and sends back a response message to the client. The response message includes the requested resource, such as an HTML file, or an error message if the requested resource is not found.
  3. The client receives the response and displays the requested resource in the browser.

The HTTP protocol uses a request-response model, meaning that the client sends a request to the server and waits to receive a response back. HTTP requests include a method, which is a verb that specifies the type of request being made, such as GET (to retrieve a resource), POST (to submit data to a server), PUT (to replace an existing resource), and DELETE (to remove a resource).

Overall, the HTTP protocol is a vital part of the web, enabling the transmission of data between clients and servers in a standardized and efficient way.

// Example of an HTTP Request (GET)
GET /index.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.com
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/58.0.3029.110 Safari/537.3

// Example of an HTTP Response
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 23:59:59 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 1354

<h1>Welcome to my webpage!</h1>
<p>I hope you find the content informative and entertaining.</p>

What is a Web Server?

A web server is a software program that serves web pages to clients that request them. It uses HTTP, a protocol that enables communication between the server and the client. When a client sends a request to the server, the server responds by returning the requested content to the client. Web servers can serve different types of content, including HTML files, images, and videos. They are an essential component of the Internet, enabling users all over the world to access websites and web applications.

Understanding the MVC Pattern

The MVC pattern, which stands for Model-View-Controller, is a software architecture commonly used in web application development. It is used to divide the application into three interconnected components, namely the model, view, and controller.

The model represents the data and the rules that govern the behavior of the application. The view is responsible for displaying the data provided by the model to the user. The controller handles user input, interacts with the model, and updates the view accordingly.

By breaking down an application into independent components, the MVC pattern makes it easier to maintain, test, and modify the code. It also enables multiple developers to work on different parts of the application simultaneously without interfering with each other's work.

Overall, the MVC pattern promotes a clear separation of concerns, which results in a more organized and scalable application.

Role of Components in the MVC Pattern

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern is a design pattern commonly used in web-based applications.

Model: The model component is responsible for managing the application's data. It interacts with the database or other sources of data and provides data to other components when requested.

View: The view component handles the representation of data that is sent to the user interface. It is responsible for displaying the data and receives input from the user.

Controller: The controller component is responsible for managing the flow of data between the model and the view components. It processes user requests, updates the model component with changes, and updates the view with new data.

Each component has a specific role to play in managing the application's data, processing requests, and presenting information to the user. By separating these responsibilities, the MVC pattern improves the maintainability, scalability, and testability of web-based applications.

Understanding the Purpose of .csproj File

In C# and .NET development, the .csproj file is a project file that stores important information about the project, such as references, files, and assembly information. This file plays a crucial role in building and compiling the project. When you open a project in Visual Studio, the .csproj file is automatically loaded and used to configure the build process. It is also used to manage dependencies, such as NuGet packages. In summary, the .csproj file helps to streamline the development process and ensure that all the necessary files and information are properly organized and integrated into the project.

What is NuGet Package Manager?

NuGet is a free and open-source package manager for the Microsoft development platform (including .NET). With NuGet, developers can easily add and manage third-party libraries and tools in their projects. It simplifies the process of finding, installing, and updating packages within Visual Studio and provides a centralized repository for sharing packages among developers. NuGet enables software developers to focus on their own code and accelerate the development cycle by eliminating the need to write, test, and maintain common functionality like logging, caching, serialization, and more.

Purpose of the Program Class

The Program class serves as the entry point for a C# console application. It contains the main method, which is the starting point for execution when the program is run. It is responsible for initializing the application and calling other necessary methods or classes. Overall, the purpose of the Program class is to provide a structure for the console application to operate within.

Purpose of the Startup class

The Startup class is an important class in .NET Core and is responsible for configuring the application's services and middleware. This class is called when the application starts up and helps to define how the application is going to work. Some of the typical tasks performed in the Startup class include setting up dependency injection, configuring middleware, and defining the application's request handling pipeline. Essentially, the Startup class acts as the entry point for the application and helps to ensure that everything is set up properly before the application starts processing requests.

Purpose of the wwwroot folder

The wwwroot folder is primarily used for storing web application content that is served by a web server. It acts as the document root for a website or web application. When a request is made to the web server, the server retrieves the content from the wwwroot folder and sends it to the client who initiated the request. Additionally, the wwwroot folder also contains the default documents that are served when a directory is accessed without specifying a particular file. Overall, the wwwroot folder plays a crucial role in hosting web applications and serving their content over the internet.

// sample C# code to serve contents from wwwroot folder using ASP.NET Core
public class Startup 
  public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app) 

Purpose of the appsettings.json File

The appsettings.json file is a configuration file in a .NET application that stores settings and configuration data required by the application. It is used to specify things like the connection string for a database, logging settings, and other application-level settings. The purpose of this file is to provide a centralized location for storing the application's configuration data, which can be easily accessed and modified without the need to recompile the application.

// Example of appsettings.json file
  "Logging": {
    "LogLevel": {
      "Default": "Information",
      "Microsoft": "Warning",
      "Microsoft.Hosting.Lifetime": "Information"
  "AllowedHosts": "*",
  "ConnectionStrings": {
    "DefaultConnection": "Server=(localdb)\\mssqllocaldb;Database=MyDatabase;Trusted_Connection=True;MultipleActiveResultSets=true"

Difference between IIS and Kestrel

IIS (Internet Information Services) and Kestrel are two web servers in .NET. IIS is a full-featured web server that has been included with Windows operating systems for a long time. Kestrel is a cross-platform HTTP server built on .NET Core that can be self-hosted or run in conjunction with IIS.

The main difference between IIS and Kestrel is the way they handle incoming requests. IIS uses a thread-based architecture that works well for serving large numbers of clients, but can become less efficient when there are many long-running requests. Kestrel, on the other hand, uses an event-driven architecture that can handle a large number of requests with minimal overhead, making it ideal for high-performance scenarios.

While IIS is still a popular choice for Windows-based hosting environments, Kestrel has become increasingly popular due to its cross-platform capabilities, lightweight nature, and strong performance. Many developers choose to use Kestrel as a standalone web server or in combination with a reverse proxy such as Nginx or Apache to achieve optimal performance and flexibility.

Advanced ASP.NET Interview Questions

19. Could you explain what model binding is in ASP.NET?

Model binding

is a capability of ASP.NET that enables developers to bind HTTP request data to the model object as parameters in an action method. The


can be a single class instance or a collection of objects. The framework provides default model binding for basic data types such as integers, strings, and dates, but it can also be customized to support application-specific data types. This feature reduces the amount of code required to convert data from the request to model objects and ultimately improves the application's performance.

What is an Action Method?

An action method is a method within a controller in ASP.NET Framework that is responsible for responding to a specific HTTP request from a client. It performs the necessary operations, such as fetching or updating data, and returns the appropriate response to the client. It is identified by its name which follows the convention of "ActionName". Action methods are essential components of the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture, which is a widely used design pattern in web application development.

Types that Implement the IActionResult Interface

The IActionResult interface in ASP.NET Core is implemented by different types such as:

1. ViewResult: It returns an HTML view to display in the browser. 2. JsonResult: It returns a JSON formatted result. 3. ObjectResult: It returns an object as an HTTP response message. 4. ContentResult: It returns a user-defined content-type response. 5. FileResult: It returns a file in the HTTP response message. 6. StatusCodeResult: It returns a specified status code as an HTTP response message.


// Example of returning a ViewResult from a controller action method
public class HomeController : Controller {
    public IActionResult Index() {
        // ...
        return View();

// Example of returning a JsonResult from a controller action method
public class PersonController : Controller {
    public IActionResult GetPerson(int id) {
        // ...
        return new JsonResult(person);

// Example of returning a FileResult from a controller action method
public class DownloadController : Controller {
    public IActionResult Download() {
        // ...
        return File(fileStream, "application/octet-stream", "fileName.ext");

The above code shows examples of returning different types of results from controller actions in ASP.NET Core.

Understanding the HttpContext object and accessing it within a Controller

The HttpContext object represents the context information of an HTTP request received by a server. It contains useful information such as the client IP address, user agent, HTTP method, URL, form data, and cookies.

In an ASP.NET Core Controller, you can access the HttpContext object using the HttpContext property. For example:

public class MyController : Controller
    public IActionResult Index()
        var httpContext = HttpContext;
        // use the httpContext object
        return View();

Once you have access to the HttpContext object, you can read information from the request, add data to the response, set cookies, and much more. It's a powerful object that provides a lot of functionality for web developers.

What is Dependency Injection?

Dependency Injection (DI) is a design pattern commonly used in object-oriented programming that promotes loose coupling between a class and its dependencies. Rather than the class creating its dependencies directly, they are injected into it via constructor or property injection. This allows for better testability, flexibility, and maintainability of the code. DI containers are often used to manage the injection of dependencies.

How Dependency Injection Works in ASP.NET Core?

Dependency injection (DI) is a design pattern used in software development that enables the creation of loosely-coupled components. ASP.NET Core provides a built-in DI container that can be used to manage the dependencies of an application.

In ASP.NET Core, the DI container creates and manages instances of classes that are required by other classes. The classes that depend on other classes receive instances of these dependencies through constructor injection, property injection or method injection.

For example, suppose we have a class named `UserService` that requires an instance of `IUserRepository` to fetch user data. Instead of creating an instance of `IUserRepository` in the `UserService` class, we can use DI to inject an instance of `IUserRepository` into the constructor of the `UserService` class as shown below:

public class UserService : IUserService
    private readonly IUserRepository _userRepository;

    public UserService(IUserRepository userRepository)
        _userRepository = userRepository;

    // other methods

The DI container will automatically create an instance of `IUserRepository` and pass it to the constructor of the `UserService` class. This enables us to replace the implementation of `IUserRepository` with a different implementation without modifying the `UserService` class.

To register the dependencies with the DI container, we use the `ConfigureServices` method in the `Startup` class. For example:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
    services.AddTransient<IUserService, UserService>();
    services.AddTransient<IUserRepository, UserRepository>();

In this example, we register `IUserService` and `IUserRepository` with the DI container and specify their implementations (`UserService` and `UserRepository`) as transient services. This means that a new instance of these services will be created each time they are requested.

Overall, using DI in ASP.NET Core promotes modularity and testability by reducing tight coupling between components and simplifying the process of replacing implementations of dependencies.

What is a Cookie?

A cookie is a small text file that a website stores on a user's computer or mobile device when the user visits the website. This file contains information about the user's preferences and interactions with the website that can be retrieved by the website during subsequent visits. Cookies are commonly used to personalize a user's experience on a website, track user behavior and preferences, and provide targeted advertising.

Concept of Middleware in ASP.NET Core

Middleware in ASP.NET Core refers to a software component that acts as a bridge between an application's request and response pipeline. It is the component responsible for handling requests and responding with the corresponding HTTP response. Middleware can perform various tasks such as authentication, resource caching, logging, and error handling.

Middleware works as a pipeline style with a sequence of components, and each component behaves according to the request received. The middleware components can either manipulate the incoming HTTP requests or modified the outgoing HTTP responses, or can invoke the next middleware components in the pipeline.

In ASP.NET Core, the middleware components are configured by using the


method, which sets up the order and execution of the middleware components. Middleware can be executed in a defined order or based on specific conditions, making it highly customizable for various types of web applications.

One of the essential benefits of using Middleware in ASP.NET Core is that it provides a layered approach to application development that allows developers to add or remove features independently of the underlying application logic. Ultimately the middlewares can be customized or reused for different applications, making the development process more efficient.

Understanding Routing in ASP.NET Core

Routing in ASP.NET Core is the process of determining which endpoint (controller method) should handle an incoming HTTP request. It is responsible for mapping incoming requests to corresponding actions in your application. With routing, you can specify which URL patterns should be matched to trigger specific action methods.

In ASP.NET Core, routes are defined using the `Map{Verb}` extension methods on the `EndpointRouteBuilder` class. These extensions map a URL pattern to a specific action method or a controller.

For example, let's say we have a `HomeController` and we want a URL of `/home/about` to map to its `About()` action method. We can define this route in the `Configure()` method of the `Startup.cs` file as follows:

app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
        name: "default",
        pattern: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}");
        name: "about",
        pattern: "home/about",
        defaults: new { controller = "Home", action = "About" });

In this example, we first define a default route that maps to the `HomeController`'s `Index()` action method. Then, we define an additional route `about` and specify that the URL pattern should be `home/about` and map to the `HomeController`'s `About()` action method.

Using routing, we can create sophisticated URL patterns that map to specific controller actions. This provides a structured approach to building applications that can be easily maintained and modified over time.

Explanation of Conventional Routing

Conventional routing works by forwarding data packets through a network based on the address of the destination node. This address is usually represented as an IP address.

When a packet is sent from one node to another, it is first forwarded to a gateway or router. The router then examines the IP address of the packet and selects the best path to the destination node based on its routing table.

The routing table contains information about network topology and the links between nodes. Using this information, the router forwards the packet to the next node on the path to the destination.

This process is repeated hop by hop until the packet reaches the destination node. Conventional routing algorithms include Distance Vector Routing, Link State Routing, and Path Vector Routing.

Conventional routing is widely used and is suitable for small- to medium-size networks. However, it can become inefficient in large, complex networks with frequent changes in topology. To overcome these limitations, advanced routing protocols like OSPF, EIGRP, and BGP have been developed.

Explanation of Attribute-Based Routing

Attribute-based routing is a mechanism used to route incoming requests to specific controllers and methods based on the attributes assigned to them. This technique is often used in web applications built using the ASP.NET Core framework.

In attribute-based routing, the developer decorates the methods and controllers with specific attributes, such as [HttpGet], [HttpPost], [Route], and [Authorize]. These attributes define the method, its expected input parameters, and the HTTP request methods that the method will handle.

The routing engine scans all the controllers and their methods looking for attributes that match the incoming request. Once the attribute matches the incoming request, the routing engine determines the controller and method that will handle the request.

Attribute-based routing provides an easy and flexible way to handle complicated routing scenarios in web applications. Developers can easily manage and customize routes based on specific criteria such as HTTP request methods, route templates, and parameters.

What is a RESTful Web Service or a Web API?

A RESTful Web Service or a Web API is a type of web application interface that allows communication between two systems over the internet. It uses HTTP protocols to provide CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) operations that can be accessed over the web. RESTful APIs are easy to consume and are widely used for mobile applications, web applications and other client-server interactions.

What is Entity Framework?

Entity Framework is a popular object-relational mapping (ORM) framework for .NET applications. It provides a high-level abstraction for interacting with databases, allowing developers to work with database objects as if they were regular objects in code. With Entity Framework, developers can create, read, update, and delete records in a database using simple and intuitive code. This makes it easier to develop data-driven applications and reduces the amount of boilerplate code that developers need to write. Additionally, Entity Framework supports a variety of database providers, including SQL Server, Oracle, and MySQL, making it a versatile and widely-used technology in the .NET ecosystem.


The conclusion of the study will be presented in this section.

Please provide more information or context to generate a complete conclusion.

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