Frequently Asked AngularJS Interview Questions for 2023 - IQCode

Introduction to AngularJS

AngularJS is an open-source structural JavaScript framework, originally developed by 2 Google developers Misko Hevery and Adam Abrons in 2009. It is designed to facilitate the development of large-scale, dynamic, single-page web applications using the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture.

Some of the key features of AngularJS include:

- Two-way data binding: it ensures that changes in the UI are immediately reflected in the model, and vice versa. - Directives: they extend the behavior of standard HTML elements and help in creating custom tags and attributes. - Dependency injection: it is a design pattern that allows components to be loosely coupled, making code more modular and testable. - Routing: it helps in building complex SPA (Single Page Applications) with multiple views and components. - Testing: AngularJS has a built-in testing framework called "Karma", which can help in testing the code and components.

Overall, AngularJS is a powerful and widely-used framework, suitable for enterprise-level web applications.

Understanding Scope in AngularJS

Scope is a very important concept in AngularJS as it acts as the binding glue between the view and the controller. It's a JavaScript object that refers to the application model and provides context for evaluating expressions.

In AngularJS, there are two types of scopes - $rootScope and $scope. A $rootScope is the parent of all other scopes and is created when an AngularJS application is started. On the other hand, $scope is a child scope of $rootScope and is created whenever a new controller is instantiated.

The scope acts as a mediator between the view and the controller, providing a two-way data binding mechanism. This means that changes made to the model in the view are immediately reflected in the controller and vice versa.

Understanding how to use scope effectively is essential to building complex and scalable AngularJS applications. By creating a hierarchical structure of child and parent scopes, you can easily manage different parts of your application and avoid scope pollution.

//Example of creating a new controller with its own scope
angular.module('myApp', [])
.controller('MyController', function($scope) {
  //Controller logic goes here

Understanding Services in AngularJS

In AngularJS, services are objects that provide functionality and can be injected into various components such as controllers, directives, filters, and others. They allow for code reuse, modularization, and separation of concerns.

Services can perform a wide range of tasks such as handling HTTP requests, validating user input, performing calculations, and more. They can also be used to share data between different components.

Some of the built-in services in AngularJS include:

- $http: used for making HTTP requests - $location: used for manipulating URLs - $timeout: used for executing a function after a specified delay - $filter: used for formatting and manipulating data - $rootScope: used for broadcasting and handling events across the application - $q: used for implementing promises for asynchronous operations - and many others

You can also create your own custom services in AngularJS. They can be created using the .service(), .factory(), or .provider() methods.

Services are an essential part of an AngularJS application and can greatly enhance the efficiency and modularity of your code.


In AngularJS, directives are markers in the DOM (Document Object Model) which tell AngularJS to attach a particular behavior to that DOM element. They can be used to create reusable components or add behavior to existing components. Directives in AngularJS are declared using the "directive" function and can be associated with either an HTML element name or an attribute name. They are considered to be a core feature of AngularJS and are extensively used in building complex applications.

Explanation of the data binding process in AngularJS

In AngularJS, data binding is the process of automatically synchronizing data between the model and the view. This means that any changes made in the model are immediately reflected in the view, and vice versa.

There are two types of data binding in AngularJS:

1. One-way data binding: In this type of data binding, changes made in the model are reflected in the view, but changes made in the view are not reflected in the model. This is achieved using the ng-bind directive.

2. Two-way data binding: In this type of data binding, changes made in the model are reflected in the view, and changes made in the view are also reflected in the model. This is achieved using the ng-model directive.

The process of data binding involves three key components: the model, the view, and the controller. The model represents the data, the view represents the UI elements that display the data, and the controller acts as the intermediary between the two.

When the view is loaded, AngularJS creates a $scope object which serves as the glue between the view and the controller. The $scope object contains all the variables and functions that are accessible in the view. When a user interacts with the view, say by entering text in an input field, a corresponding event is triggered in the DOM.

This event is captured by the controller, which updates the $scope object with the new value. The view then automatically updates to reflect the new value of the $scope object.

Overall, the data binding process in AngularJS simplifies the development of dynamic web applications by reducing the need for manual DOM manipulation.

Purpose of Interpolation in AngularJS

In AngularJS, interpolation is used to bind data to HTML templates. It allows the developer to dynamically display values from the controller in the view without the need for manual DOM manipulation. Interpolation is denoted by double curly braces `{{}}`, and can be used to display simple values, as well as complex expressions and objects. The purpose of interpolation is to create a dynamic and responsive user interface that updates in real time as data changes. It is a powerful tool that simplifies the development process and enhances the functionality of AngularJS applications.

Integrating AngularJS with HTML

To integrate AngularJS with HTML, you will need to follow these steps:

1. Add the AngularJS library to your HTML file using the script tag.

2. Create a module using the ng-app directive. This will attach AngularJS to the HTML document.

3. Define a controller using the ng-controller directive. This will define the logic for the view.

4. Bind data to the view using the double curly brackets notation {{ }}.

5. Use AngularJS directives to add functionality to the HTML page.

Here is an example of how to integrate AngularJS with HTML:

<!-- Add AngularJS library -->
<script src=""></script>

<!-- Attach AngularJS to HTML document -->
<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="myCtrl">
    <!-- Bind data to view -->
    <p>Name: {{ name }}</p>
    <p>Age: {{ age }}</p>

    // Create module
    var app = angular.module("myApp", []);

    // Define controller
    app.controller("myCtrl", function($scope) {
        // Add logic to controller
        $ = "John Doe";
        $scope.age = 30;

In this example, we add the AngularJS library to our HTML file, create a module called "myApp", define a controller called "myCtrl", bind data to the view using double curly brackets notation, and add logic to our controller using the $scope object.

Definition of $rootScope in an AngularJS Application

In an AngularJS application, $rootScope refers to the uppermost scope of the application's scope hierarchy. It is the parent of all other scopes that are created in the application.

$rootScope facilitates communication between different controller components and has a lifecycle that spans across the entire application. It can be used to define global variables and functions that need to be accessed or modified throughout the application.

To use $rootScope in an AngularJS application, it can be injected into a controller as a dependency and then accessed as follows:


myApp.controller('myController', function($scope, $rootScope) {
  //access $rootScope variables and functions

It is essential to note that using $rootScope may affect the application's performance since any changes made to it will trigger automatic digest cycles, which are resource-intensive. Thus, it is recommended to use $rootScope judiciously and only when necessary.

Difference between ng-if and ng-show directives

Both ng-if and ng-show directives are used to control the visibility of HTML elements based on some conditions. However, there are some differences between them:


  • The HTML element is only created in the DOM if the condition is true.
  • The scope of the HTML element is destroyed and recreated each time the condition changes from false to true or vice versa.
  • It provides a better performance when dealing with conditions that are seldom true.


  • The HTML element is always created in the DOM even if the condition is false.
  • The visibility of the HTML element is controlled by adding or removing the CSS property "display: none".
  • The performance is not as good as ng-if when dealing with conditions that are seldom true.

In summary, if you need to conditionally create or destroy HTML elements, use ng-if. If you only need to toggle their visibility, use ng-show.

// Sample usage of ng-if and ng-show directives
<div ng-if="showElement">
  <p>This element is only created if showElement is true.</p>

<div ng-show="showElement">
  <p>This element is always created, but its visibility is controlled by showElement value.</p>

Reasons for using $watch in AngularJS

The $watch feature in AngularJS is used for the following reasons:

- To maintain data synchronization between the view and the model.<br>
- To execute a function whenever a particular variable changes.<br>
- To improve performance by selectively watching variables instead of the whole scope.<br>
- To handle situations where a function needs to be executed when multiple variables change.<br>
- To track changes that occur outside of AngularJS's digest cycle, such as those made by third-party libraries.<br>

Understanding Scope Hierarchy

In programming, scope refers to the accessibility of variables, functions, and other program elements within a specific portion of code. Scope hierarchy refers to the order in which a program searches for these elements within nested blocks of code.

For example, if a variable is defined within a function, it is accessible only within that function. However, if a nested function is defined within the first function, it can access the variable defined in the parent function.

Understanding scope hierarchy is important for writing efficient and effective code. By structuring code with a clear understanding of the scope hierarchy, developers can avoid conflicts and errors caused by unexpected variable or function behavior.

What is an AngularJS module?

In AngularJS, a module is a container for different parts of an application such as controllers, services, directives, filters, etc. It provides a way to organize code into manageable blocks and to improve code reusability. A module can depend on other modules, creating a hierarchy of dependencies. It can also be loaded and run by an HTML document. Here's an example of creating a module:

  // Creating a module
  var myAppModule = angular.module('myApp', []);

  // Creating a controller
  myAppModule.controller('myController', function($scope) {
    $scope.myData = "Hello World!";

In this example, we created a module named 'myApp', which has an empty array as a second parameter. We also created a controller named 'myController' and attached it to the 'myApp' module. The controller has a $scope variable 'myData' which has a value of "Hello World!".

Overall, modules are an essential part of AngularJS development as they provide a foundation for creating and organizing an application.

AngularJS Interview Questions for Experienced

In AngularJS, expressions are used to bind application data to HTML. They are written inside double curly braces such as {{ expression }} and are evaluated based on a context. On the other hand, JavaScript expressions are not enclosed in double curly braces and are used to perform operations and manipulate data in a web browser. The main difference between the two is that AngularJS expressions are limited in functionality and cannot execute certain operations such as loops or conditionals, while JavaScript expressions have no such restrictions.

Scope Characteristics in AngularJS

In AngularJS, the scope is a JavaScript object that acts as a glue between the view and the controller. Here are some of the characteristics of AngularJS scope:

1. Hierarchical Structure:

AngularJS scope has a hierarchical structure. Each controller has its own scope, which can inherit from its parent controller scope.

2. Two-way Data Binding:

Any changes made in the controller is automatically reflected in the view, and vice versa, without the need for a dedicated code for synchronization.

3. Prototypical Inheritance:

The scope objects in AngularJS use prototypical inheritance, where they inherit properties and methods from their parent scope.

4. Isolation:

The scopes in AngularJS are isolated from each other. This is done by creating a new scope for every directive instance using the “isolate scope” feature.

5. Event Propagation:

AngularJS scopes can propagate DOM events, which means that a directive can access and modify event data.

6. Watchabilities:

Scopes in AngularJS are “watchable,” which means the scope can monitor changes and perform actions in response, such as updating the view.

Understanding these scope characteristics can greatly enhance your ability to develop robust AngularJS applications.

How to Implement Mouse Double Click Event

The mouse double click event can be accomplished by attaching an event listener to the desired element. Here's an example:

element.addEventListener('dblclick', function(){
  // code to be executed when the element is double clicked

In this example, "element" is the HTML element that you want to attach the event listener to. The "dblclick" parameter specifies the double click event.

Once the event listener is attached, any time the user double clicks on the specified element, the code within the function will be executed.

It's important to note that not all HTML elements support the double click event. For example, you can't double click on an <img> tag or a <span> tag. However, most interactive elements like <button> and <input> support the double click event.

Resetting $timeout and Disabling $watch()

To reset a $timeout, you can simply assign it to a variable and use the $timeout.cancel() method to cancel it. Here's an example:

//assigning $timeout to a variable
var myTimeout = $timeout(function() {
  //code to be executed
}, 5000);

//resetting $timeout
myTimeout = $timeout(function() {
  //new code to be executed after 5 seconds
}, 5000);

//disabling $watch()
var myWatcher = $scope.$watch('myValue', function(newValue, oldValue) {
  //code to be executed when myValue changes

//disabling $watch()

To disable a $watch(), you can invoke the function that is returned when calling the $watch() method. Here's an example:

//assigning $watch() to a variable
var myWatcher = $scope.$watch('myValue', function(newValue, oldValue) {
  //code to be executed when myValue changes

//disabling $watch()

Explanation and Usage of the findIndex() Method



method is used in JavaScript to search for the first element in an array that satisfies a given condition and returns its index. If the value is not found, the function returns -1.

This method is commonly used for tasks like filtering, searching, or mapping through arrays. It takes in a predicate function that evaluates to




for each element in the array. The first element that returns


is returned by the function.

Here's an example of how the


method can be used:

const numbers = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9];

const index = numbers.findIndex(element => element > 5);

// Output: 3

In the above code, the


method is used to find the index of the first element in the array


that is greater than 5, which is 7. Therefore, the output is 3.

Is it Possible for a Parent Controller to Access the Methods and Properties of the Child Controller?

Yes, it is possible for a parent controller to access the methods and properties of the child controller. However, this should be done with caution as it can lead to tight coupling and reduced modularity.

// Example:
public class ParentController {
   // Parent Controller code here

public class ChildController extends ParentController {
   public void childMethod() {
      // Child Controller code here
// To access child method from parent controller, cast child controller as child when calling it
ParentController parent = new ChildController();
((ChildController) parent).childMethod();

I am sorry, but as an AI language model, I cannot see any piece of code provided. Can you please provide me the code or elaborate more on the given piece of code?

Importance of Track By in the ng-repeat Directive

The `ng-repeat` directive in AngularJS is used to iterate over a collection or an array. When using `ng-repeat`, it is essential to add a `track by` clause to the expression. The primary significance of `track by` is to enable AngularJS to distinguish between the items in the collection and apply changes only to those that have been updated, thus improving performance.

Without using `track by`, AngularJS would have to rebuild the entire list every time any item is added, removed, or moved. This behavior can result in a slow and inefficient rendering process, slow down the application, and cause unnecessary load on the server. In contrast, applying `track by` with a unique identifier for each item allows AngularJS to identify specific items and make the required changes dynamically.

In summary, the `track by` clause in the `ng-repeat` directive is crucial for improving the performance and efficiency of AngularJS applications that involve data iterations.

Explanation of Code Functionality and Permitted Values of Restrict Attribute

This prompt appears to refer to a code block that is not provided. Without additional information, it is impossible to determine what code this prompt is referencing, and therefore not possible to explain its functionality or the permitted values of any attributes.

Please provide the relevant code block or additional context for further assistance.

Understanding Compilation and Linking in AngularJS

In the context of AngularJS, compilation refers to the process of converting HTML templates, directives, and other Angular-specific constructs into JavaScript code that can be executed by the browser. This process is performed by the AngularJS compiler, which parses and analyzes the HTML and generates the corresponding JavaScript code.

On the other hand, linking in AngularJS refers to the process of connecting the compiled JavaScript code with the actual DOM elements on the page. This process involves setting up event listeners, initializing scope variables, and performing other necessary tasks to make the AngularJS application functional.

In summary, compilation is the process of turning Angular-specific constructs into JavaScript code, while linking is the process of connecting that code with the DOM. Both processes are necessary for an AngularJS application to function properly.

Understanding Routing in AngularJS

In AngularJS, routing refers to the process of selecting a view to display on the basis of the current URL of the application. The routing process is managed by the inbuilt $routeProvider service.

When a user navigates to a particular URL, the routeProvider service checks its routing configuration to determine the path specified in the URL. Based on this path, it looks for a corresponding view template, and then renders it within the designated area of the HTML page.

The following steps are involved in configuring a route in your AngularJS application:

1. Define a set of URLs for your application 2. Map each URL to a corresponding view template 3. Initialize the $routeProvider service and configure the routes using the when() method 4. Set the default route using the otherwise() method

You can also define additional parameters for your routes, such as route authentication, route caching, and route handling, using the resolve() function.

Overall, routing in AngularJS provides a powerful way to create dynamic single-page applications with multiple views.

Sending an HTTP POST Request in AngularJS

To send a sample HTTP POST request in AngularJS, you can use the `$http` service. Here's the syntax:


  method: 'POST',
  url: '/your-url',
  data: { key: value }
}).then(function successCallback(response) {
    // handle success
  }, function errorCallback(response) {
    // handle error

In the `method` parameter, we specify that we want to use the POST method. In the `url` parameter, we specify the URL of the server that we want to send the request to. The `data` parameter is used to send the data with the request.

The `then()` function is used to handle the response from the server. If the request was successful, the `successCallback` function is called, and if there was an error, the `errorCallback` function is called.

Note: Don't forget to inject the `$http` service as a dependency in your AngularJS module.

Importance of the Location Service

The $location service in AngularJS is crucial for building single-page applications. It allows developers to access and manipulate the URL in the browser without having to perform a full page reload. This feature enables the creation of smooth and responsive user experiences. By using $location, developers can easily create dynamic routes, handle redirects, and perform deep-linking within their application. Overall, the $location service greatly enhances the functionality and usability of AngularJS applications.

The Importance of OrderBy

In programming, specifically in databases, the OrderBy clause is used to sort the results of a query in either ascending or descending order based on one or more columns.

OrderBy is important because it allows developers to control the way data is presented, making it easier for users to find what they are looking for quickly. It can also improve the performance of queries by allowing the database to optimize the sorting process.

In short, OrderBy is a crucial tool for organizing and presenting data in a logical and efficient way.

Reasons for using ng-include

The ng-include directive in AngularJS is used to include HTML templates into another file. This is helpful for creating reusable components, reducing code duplication, and making the code more maintainable. It also allows for more modular code and easier testing. By using ng-include, we can separate the concerns of different parts of our application and create a more organized and efficient code base.

<!-- Example of using ng-include -->
<div ng-include="'path/to/template.html'"></div>

Is it Possible to Create Nested Controllers?

Yes, it is possible to create nested controllers in most web development frameworks, including AngularJS, Ember, and Ruby on Rails. Nesting controllers allows for better organization and modularization of code, which can make it easier to maintain and update. However, it is important to keep in mind that overuse of nested controllers can result in overly complex code that is difficult to understand and debug. It is always important to carefully consider the design and structure of your application before implementing nested controllers.

AngularJS Filters

In AngularJS, filters are used to modify data before it is displayed to the user. They can be used to format numbers, convert text to uppercase or lowercase, sort arrays, and more. Filters are applied using the pipe symbol (|) in the AngularJS templates. For example, to convert a string to uppercase, we can use the built-in 'uppercase' filter as follows:

{{ myString | uppercase }}

Here, 'myString' is the variable containing the string we want to convert to uppercase. The 'uppercase' filter is applied using the pipe symbol, which sends the value of 'myString' to the filter as an argument. The filter then returns the modified value, which is displayed in the template.

Custom filters can also be created in AngularJS, allowing developers to implement their own data transformations. To create a custom filter, we need to define a new filter function and register it with AngularJS. The function should return a function that takes the input value as an argument and returns the modified value. We can then use this filter function in our templates using the pipe symbol.

Overall, filters are an important feature of AngularJS that allow developers to easily modify data for display without modifying the underlying data itself.

Discussion on Digest Phase in AngularJS

In AngularJS, the digest phase, also known as the "digest cycle," is the process of checking for changes that need to be made to the data model and updating the view accordingly.

During the digest phase, AngularJS compares the old and new values of all the variables observed in the scope and its children. If there is a change detected, the framework triggers a new digest cycle until there are no more changes to be made.

It is worth noting that the digest phase can be triggered by user interactions, such as clicking a button, as well as by other events, such as data updates from a server. It is a crucial part of the AngularJS framework as it ensures that the view is always updated correctly and efficiently.

Phases of AngularJS Scope Lifecycle

In AngularJS, every scope follows a certain lifecycle consisting of several phases. These phases include the following:

1. **Creation Phase:** In this phase, AngularJS creates a new scope by invoking the constructor function. This phase is responsible for setting up the initial state of the scope and establishing a link between the scope and the DOM element.

2. **Watchers Registration Phase:** In this phase, AngularJS registers all the watchers defined in the scope.

3. **Model Mutation Phase:** In this phase, AngularJS updates the model by running all the registered watchers and applying the changes to the DOM elements.

4. **Digest Phase:** In this phase, AngularJS checks if any of the model values have been changed by comparing the previous model with the new model. If any changes are detected, it runs the registered watchers and updates the view.

5. **Post-Digest Phase:** In this phase, AngularJS performs cleanup tasks such as removing any elements that have been deleted from the DOM or removing any listeners that are no longer needed.

Understanding the different phases of the AngularJS scope lifecycle is essential for writing efficient and bug-free AngularJS applications.

Improving Performance of an AngularJS Application

To improve the performance of an AngularJS application, we can follow these best practices:

  1. Use one time binding wherever possible to avoid unnecessary watches.
  2. Reduce the number of watchers by minimizing the use of ng-repeat and ng-show directives, and using the track by function.
  3. Use ng-if instead of ng-show to reduce the DOM size.
  4. Avoid using filters in ng-repeat and use a function instead.
  5. Debounce or throttle expensive operations like input, scroll, and resize events.
  6. Minimize the number of HTTP requests by concatenating and minifying CSS and JavaScript files, and using a CDN for static assets.
  7. Enable caching for AJAX requests.
  8. Use the $compileProvider.debugInfoEnabled(false) method to disable the generation of debug information in production mode.
  9. Use the $scope.$digest() method instead of the $scope.$apply() method when possible, as it only updates the current scope and its children, instead of the entire $rootScope.
  10. Use the ng-bind directive instead of curly braces ({}) as it improves performance in Internet Explorer.

By following these best practices, we can significantly improve the performance of an AngularJS application.

Understanding the Scope Difference Between a Directive and a Controller in AngularJS

In AngularJS, a directive and a controller have different scopes. The scope of a directive is isolated, meaning it does not inherit the scope of its parent. It has its own scope and can communicate with its parent scope using attributes. On the other hand, the scope of a controller is not isolated and inherits the scope of its parent.

This difference is important to keep in mind when working with AngularJS as it affects how data is passed between components. It is also important to properly define and manage scopes in AngularJS applications to prevent unexpected behavior.

Hiding an HTML tag element on button click in AngularJS

We can achieve this by using the `ng-hide` directive in AngularJS.

HTML code:

<button ng-click="hideElement()">Click Here to Hide Element</button>
<div ng-hide="isHidden">
    <p>Element to be hidden</p>

AngularJS controller code:

angular.module('myApp', [])
  .controller('myCtrl', function($scope) {
    $scope.isHidden = false;
    $scope.hideElement = function() {
      $scope.isHidden = true;


When a user clicks the button, the `hideElement()` function is called, which sets the `isHidden` variable to `true`. The `ng-hide` directive then hides the div element based on the value of the `isHidden` variable.

Note: Make sure you have included AngularJS library in your HTML file before using it in your project.

How to Maintain Logs in AngularJS

In AngularJS, you can maintain logs by using the built-in $log service. This service provides a simple API for logging messages at different levels of severity, such as debug, info, warning, and error.

To use $log, you first need to inject it into your controller or service. For example:

app.controller('MyController', function($log) {

Then, you can call $log with the desired level and message:

$log.debug('Debug message');
$'Info message');
$log.warn('Warning message');
$log.error('Error message');

By default, $log logs messages to the console. However, you can also configure it to send messages to a server or a file, or to turn off logging altogether.

Using $log can help you troubleshoot issues in your AngularJS application and improve its overall performance. Make sure to remove or disable any logging statements in production code to avoid unnecessary overhead.

Achieving Internationalization

Internationalization can be achieved by following a few steps. First, the code should be written in a way that is easily adaptable for different languages and cultural norms. This involves using externalized string resources, avoiding hard-coded values, and allowing for text expansion and contraction.

Second, the code should support multiple locales and be able to dynamically switch between them based on user preferences. This involves using locale-based formatting for dates, times, and numbers, as well as supporting right-to-left languages and different character sets.

Third, the user interface should be designed with internationalization in mind, incorporating features such as localized imagery, culturally appropriate colors, and support for languages with different character sets.

Finally, all content should be translated and localized by qualified professionals to ensure accuracy and cultural sensitivity.

Overall, achieving internationalization requires a thoughtful and deliberate approach that takes into account the needs and expectations of users from different cultures and languages.

Understanding the Auto Bootstrap Process

The auto bootstrap process is a feature that automatically starts up a computer system after a sudden power outage or shutdown. This process is initiated by the system's BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) and is designed to ensure that the system boots up properly in the event of a power interruption.

During the auto bootstrap process, the BIOS performs a series of system checks to ensure that the hardware components of the computer are functioning correctly. It then loads the necessary drivers and operating system files to start up the system.

The auto bootstrap process can be configured to automatically start up a specific set of applications or services once the system has fully booted. This feature is commonly used by servers, as they need to be always up and running to provide continuous services to clients.

In summary, the auto bootstrap process is an essential feature of modern computer systems that ensures proper boot-up after sudden power loss or shutdown.

Available Lifecycle Hooks

In React, there are several lifecycle hooks that can be used to perform actions at specific points in the component’s lifecycle. These include:

// Mounting constructor() static getDerivedStateFromProps() render() componentDidMount()

// Updating static getDerivedStateFromProps() shouldComponentUpdate() render() getSnapshotBeforeUpdate() componentDidUpdate()

// Unmounting componentWillUnmount()

// Error Handling static getDerivedStateFromError() componentDidCatch()

These hooks are called in a specific order based on what is happening with the component. For example, the constructor method is called when the component is first created, and the componentDidMount method is called after the component has been rendered for the first time. By using these lifecycle hooks, you can control how the component behaves and interacts with other components in your app.

Explanation of the $ and $$ Prefixes

In JavaScript, the $ prefix is usually used to refer to a single element selected by using jQuery. On the other hand, the $$ prefix is not a part of vanilla JavaScript but is used in some libraries such as Prototype to refer to all elements that match a specific selector.

For example, if we want to select a specific element with an id of "example", we can use the $ prefix in jQuery as follows:

var element = $('#example');

However, if we want to select all elements with a class of "exampleClass", we can use the $$ prefix in Prototype as follows:

var elements = $$('.exampleClass');

Therefore, the $ prefix is used to select a single element, and the $$ prefix is used to select multiple elements.

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